Karen Mann Æ Jill Gordon Æ Anna MacLeod
The importance of reﬂection and reﬂective practice are frequently noted in the literature; indeed, reﬂective capacity is regarded by many as an essential characteristic for professional competence.
Educators assert that the emergence of reﬂective practice is part of a change that acknowledges the need for students to act and to think professionally as an integral part of learning throughout their courses of study, integrating theory and practice from the outset. Activities to promote reﬂection are now being incorporated into under- graduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, and across a variety of health professions.
The evidence to support and inform these curricular interventions and innovations remains largely theoretical. Further, the literature is dispersed across several ﬁelds, and it is unclear which approaches may have efﬁcacy or impact. We, therefore, designed a literature review to evaluate the existing evidence about reﬂection and reﬂective practice and their utility in health professional education.
Our aim was to understand the key variables inﬂuencing this educational process, identify gaps in the evidence, and to explore any implications for educational practice and research.
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