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Date posted: October 23, 2011

Dr Anil.K,
Medical officer, B.R.Sur homoeopathic medical college, Motibagh
Dr.Abilash.S,
Medical officer, Nehru Homoeopathic Medical College Defence colony,New.Delhi

An analysis of previous question papers of U.P.S.C as well as various state public service commissions shows that 20-25% questions are from Organon of medicine. But Scarcity of study materials is a biggest handicap for candidates who are preparing seriously for these examinations. This is a humble attempt to guide students how to prepare Organon.

The text books that are to be referred for preparing organon for competitive examinations are.
1) Commentary on organon by B.K.Sarcar
2) Organon of medicine by Dudgeon
3) Pioneers of homoeopathy by Dr.Mahendra singh
4) Hahneman his life&work by Richard Hael
5) First 15chapters of principles&practice of homoeopathy by R.Hughes
6) First 6 chapters of A manual of paharmacodynamics by R.Hughes

The questions are asked especially from following areas
1)Aphorisms- students should have a clear idea regarding all the 291 aphorisms and their foot notes. By reading the appendix to organon a deeper understanding regarding the changes organon underwent can  be made. Questions are asked from introduction to organon also.

2)Life and works of pioneers in the field of homeopathy-An idea regarding the great homoeopaths with
a special reference to their contributions and reason for their conversion to homoeopathy.

3)History of organon of medicine-Precursors of organon, different editions of organon and number of aphorisms in each editions, year of publication, name of translators, place of publication and other various changes that the bookunderwent.

4)History of medicine-Various systems of medicine and detailed history homoeopathy in India. History of medicine part in text book of preventive&social medicine by Park&Park can be referred.

5)Questions are expected from Kent`s lecures, Genious of homoeopathy also. In most of the exams few questions are asked regarding Kent`s observations.

HISTORY OF ORGANON
Hahnemann got inspiration from the book Novum organum ,second part of Insaturatio magna by Lord Bacon And Organon by Aristotle.

The precursors of organon
(1)An essay on ascertaining the curative power of drugs,1796
(2)Aesculapius in the balance(1805) – Aesculapius was a Greek physician
(3)Medicine of experience ,1805
(4)On the value of speculative system of medicine,1808
(5)Observations on the three current methods of treatment,1809
(6)The spirit of homoeopathic doctrine of medicine.

First edition contains 271 aphorisms.Published in 1810 at Leipzig.It was translated to English byC.E Wheeler in 1913.

The title was organon der rationellen heilkunde(Organon of rational healing art).On the cover page a stanza from German Poet Gellert was quoted.

Second edition contains 315 aphorisms (Due to wrong numbering aphorism 219 appears after 215 aphorisms 216,217 a and 218 is absent so total number of aphorism will be seen as 318,refer appendix to oragnon).It was published in 1819 from Leipzig. Instead of Gellerts Poem “Aude sapere” has been quoted from the work of Roman philosopher Horace. It was Translated to French by George Brunnow in 1824,this is the first French translation of organon. It is described as
Augmented edition

Third edition contains 317 aphorisms (Due to wrong numbering it is seen as 320).Published in 1824 from Kothen. It is described as improved edition

Fourth Edition contains 292 aphorisms. Published in 1829 from Kothen. It was translated to English by H.Devrient in 1833.This is the first English translation of Organon (First edition was translated to English latter in 1913).Translated  to French by G.Brunnow in 1832.Theory of chronic disease was introduced in this edition. Fourth and fifth edition are known as augmented & improved. .

Fifth edition was published in 1833 from Kothen it contains 294aphorisms. First English translation of 5th edition Was done bf Hering`s the north American academy of healing art in 1836.Second English translation was done by Dudgeon in 1849.Doctrine of vital force, note on Isopathy were introduced in this edition.

Sixth edition was published in 1921. It contains 291 aphorisms. It was translated to English by W.Boerike

In 1922.The manuscript of 6th edition was ready by 1842.But after death of Hahneman manuscript was with second wife Mealnie. In 1865 she started negotiation with Hahnemann college in Philadelphia. She demanded huge sum so it
Was not successful. In 1878 she died. Then manuscript was at Darup with Carl Von Boeninghausen son in law of Melanie.In 1920 Dr Haehl got whole of Hahnemannas posthumous scripts.Richard Haehl published it In 1921. 50millismal scale was introduced in this edition. The term vital force was replaced by vital principle.

Introduction was written by James Krauss. Because of the war in1870-71 and 1914-18 the manuscript was in danger of being lost.

APHORISMS
1) Mission of physician
2) Highest ideal of cure
3) Knowledge of physician.
4) Preserver of health
5) Exciting and fundamental cause, importance of constitution
6) For the physician the disease consist only totality of symptoms.
7)  Totality of symptoms
8)Once symptoms are eradicated disease is cured
9) Vital force
10) With out vital force organism is dead.

18) Totality is the sole guide to direct us in choice of remedy
19-21 What is curative in medicine
22)  2methods of treatment
23) Antipathic method
24,25) Merits of homoeopathy
26-35) Natural law of cure and explanation
26-natural law of cure
27-Curative power of drugs
28,29-modus operandi of cure
30-34 Superiority of artificial morbific agents
36-46)What happens when dissimilar &similar disease meets
46-Fixed miasm ,accessory miasm
50)Limitation of natural morbific agent
51) Happy go lucky operations are cure offered by nature.
52) practicing onetime homeopathically & at another time allopathically is criminal treason against homoeopathy
54,55,56)Different modes of treatment
63-65)Primary action& secondary action
71) 3 point operation
72)General survey of disease acute & chronic disease
73)Acute disease &classification
74)Drug diseases
75)Drug diseases are most incurable
76Drug diseases are to be remedied by vital force itself
77)Pseudo chronic disease
78)Natural chronic disease
79)Syphilis & Sycosis

80,81) Psora fundamental cause
83)Requisite qualities of physician
1)Freedom from prejudice
2)Sound sense
3)Attention in observing & fidelity in tracing the picture of disease
84-104)Case taking
91-Pure symptom should considered
92-Conjoint malady
94-99 Difficulty in taking chronic cases
95-Lessor accessory symptoms-Due to long suffering patient become used to these symptoms & pay little attention
96-Hypochondriacs
97-Indolent patients
100to102-Epidemic diseases &genus epidemicus
105-145)Drug proving
108-Proving should be done in healthy human beings
109-Hahneman was the first to start proving on healthy human beings
113-Proving of narcotic medicines secondary action are to be observed
115-Alternating actions
117-Idiosyncracy
123-medicine for proving should be given in simple unadulterated form
125-Diet of prover
126-Qualities of prover
127-Medicine to be proved both in males &females
128-Proving should be done in 30th potency
140-Proving in illiterate provers
141-Physician is the best prover
143-Real materia medica

147)Homoeopathic specific remedy is similimum
150-Indisposition
153-Characteristic symptoms
155-61)Homoeopathic aggravation
157-What is homoeopathic aggravation
158-Prognostic value of homoeopathic aggravation
161-In acute disease aggravation lasts for few hours in chronic disease first 6,8 or 10days
162-171)Imperfectly selected medicine
163-accessory symptoms, are new symptoms appearing after administration of partially indicated medicine.
164-Small no. of symptoms is not an obstacle to the cure.
165-Unhomeopathic medicines.
169,170-When totality of symptoms is not covered by a single medicine but 2 medicines partially cover more suitable given first .And it is not advisable after the employment of more suitable of the 2 medicines .to administer other with out fresh examination.
171-To treat non venereal chronic disease several antipsoric remedies can be given in succession
172-184)One sided diseases
173-What is one sided disease
174-One sided disease with a affection of external kind is called local malady
180,181-Accessory symptoms while treating one sided disease
183-Second prescription
185-203) Local maladies treatment
185-Allopathic idea of local maladies was that external parts are only involved and rest of body did not participate in this disease
186-Surgical diseases
190-Judicious treatment of local ailments is internal medicine
194-External application should not be done
204-209) Treatment of chronic diseases
204-Cause of chronic disease

207-Treatment history
208-Personal history
209-Base of prescription
210-230)Mental disease their classification & Treatment
210-One sided diseases are psoric in origin.
211-Mental disposition determines selection of remedy.
216-Mental diseases first type after disappearance of physical symptoms.
219-Lucid interval.
220-Treatment of these type of mental disease with antipsoric treatment.
221,222,223-Menatal disease second type, sudden out break of insanity they should be first treated by acute medicines followed by antipsoric treatment.
224-Mental diseases third type, mental disease of doubtful origin.
225-Mental disease fourth type ,due to emotional factors like anxiety, worry, vexation.
228-General management of mental disease.
231-234)Intermittent &Alternating disease.
235-244)Intermittent fever.
236-Time of administration of medicine .
242-In epidemics of intermittent fever repeated dose Sulphur or Hepar sulph in high potency is to be given..
244-In fever endemic in marshy districts small dose of potentised solution of cinchona bark to be given.
245-251)Repetition of medicines.
246-Necessities for rapid cure.
1-medicine must be homoeopathic
2-given in minute doses
3-repeated at suitable intervals

247-Repeatition of medicine at interval of 14,12,10,8,7 days
248-Schein symptoms caused by excess of homoeopathic medicines.
249-Antidotes
252)Obstacles to cure
253)Signs of improvement
257)Physician should avoid making favorite remedies
259-261)diet &regiment in chronic disease
262-263)Diet in acute disease
264-271)Pharmacy
264-266)Selection of genuine medicines
267-271)Preparation of medicines
270 ( in 6thedition)50 millisimal scale
272,273)1 single simple medicine at one time
274)”It is wrong to attempt complex means when simple means suffice”, advantages of single simple medicines.
275-287)Strength of the dose for homoeopathic use
275-Large dose injures.
280- optimum dose to avoid aggravation.
284-Route of administration of drugs.
286)Magnetism electricity & galvanism.
287)use of north &south pole.
288,289)Mesmerism.
290)Massage.
291)Water bath.

FOOT NOTES
1)Theoretical medicine.
6)Prima causa morbid.
7)Causa occasionalis to be removed.
symptomatic or palliative treatment directed towards a single symptom to be rejected.
8)homoeopathy remove symptoms but disease remains-Hufelands journal.
10)What happens when vital force is absent.
11) Materia pecans(material causeof disease).
Dynamic influence.
17) Moral remedy-mental conviction remove the disease.
22)The other mode of treatment(allopathy).
31)Derangement of health means anything hyperphysical. It signifies that diseases are not mechanical or chemical alterations.
33)Hahneman used belladonna to prevent scaralatina.
40)Treatment of complex diseases can be affected by alternation of mercurial preparations with remedies specific for psora.
56)Isopathy
61)Physiological system of medicine by Broussau
67)Conditio in which palliatives are admissible.
73) Aconite used as prophylactic for purpura miliaris
80)Psora is hydraheaded monster.
93)Any cause of disgraceful character to be interrogated.
94)Special points of inquiry in females.
108)Before Hahnemann Von haller practiced drug proving on healthy human beings.
119)Surrogates are substitutes.
141)Advantages of proving by physician.
145)Hahnemann made proving on healthy human beings.
149)Mongrel sects (In 6th Edition under 148).
183)When symptoms are indistinct a dose of opium can be given to make it distinct.
205)Meta schematism-If not treated properly by dynamic internal medicines disease will be transferred to more important organs.
229)Violent mania should be treated in mental asylums.
232)Double alternating disease
260)Obstacles to cure
272)Dr Aegidi`s idea of double remedy is rejected
276)Chronic china malady
282)In fig warts external application be made with simultaneous internal application of same medicine.

PIONEERS

Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann
D
ate of birth 10th april 1755 at Saxony. Father Christian Gottfried Samuel Hahnemann,mother Johanna Christiana.Name of house corner house.

  • 1767-Admitted to town school at Meissen.
  • 1770)-Joined prince school. While leaving school in 1775he wrote essay on wonderful construction of human hand.
  • 1775-He left for Leipzig with 20 Thaler in his hand.
  • 1777-He went to Vienna and worked with Dr.Vonquarin in brothers of mercy hospital.
  • 1779-M.D was awarded for the work a consideration on aetiology and therapeutics of spasmodic affections
  • 1779-81-Praciced in Hettstedt
  • 1781-83-practiced at Dessau
  • 1782 November 17 married to Johanna Leiopaldine Henriette
  • 1783-Daughter Henriette was born
  • 1784-89 Dresden
  • 1786-on poisoning by arsenic (Essay)
  • 1789-92- Leipzic
  • 1790 –He translated Cullen;s treatise of Materia medica (2 volumes are there first one 468 and second  672 pages, published 1789 and 1790).He took 4 drachms of cinchona
  • 1792-Friends of health published
  • 1795-Handbook of mothers or principles on education of infants (Translation from French work of Rousseau) published
  • 1803- On the effects of coffee, published
  • 1805-10 at Torgau
  • 1805-Medicine of experience ,Aesculapius in the balance published
  • 1805 –Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore humano observatis
  • was written in Latin contains 27 meidicine
  • 1810-First edition of organon
  • 1810-Berlin professor A.F.Hecker attacked organon by publishing Anti organon
  • 1811-21 at Lepzic
  • 1811 First volume of materia medica pura (Latin name Reine arzneimittellehre) contains 12 drugs
  • 1816-second volume 8 medicines
  • 1817-third volume 8 meidcines
  • 1818-fourth volume 12 medicines
  • 1819-fifth volume 11 medicines
  • 1821-Sixth volume 10 medicine
  • There are 6 volumes & 61 medicines plus 3 magnets in the first edition of materia medica pura. Among these 22 medicines are taken from fragmenta.Translated by Hempel.
  • 1819-second edition of oragnon
  • 1816-on treatment of burns published
  • 1817-Examination of sources of common materia medica
  • 1821-35 Koethen
  • 1822 second augmented edition of materia medica pura was published. It appeared volume by volume like the first edition in the years 1822,1824,1825(2volumes)1826 &1827.Each contains same list  of medicines like the previous one except that Ambra grisea ,carbo animalis and vegetabilis was introduced in 6th volume.Thus it has 64 drugs plus 3 magnets. Translated by Dudgeon.
  • 1824-Third edition of Organon
  • 1828-30 appeared 4 volumes of chronic disease (die chronischen krankheiten).It contains 22drugs
  • 1829-Fourth edition of Organon
  • 1833-Fifth edition of Organon
  • 1830 death of Joahana leopardine Henriette
  • 1834 Second marriage with Marie Melanie de harvilly
  • 1835-paris
  • 1835-39 Second edition of chronic disease was published in 5 parts &contain 47 drugs
  • 1842.manuscript of sixth edition of Organon was complete

1843 July second Hahnemann died in house at Paris,no.1,Rue De Milan.For 9 days His wife Melanie kept the body and on 11th july body was buried in cemetery at MontmartreHill. The Body was buried in a grave where already 2 bodies were buried(Body of Gohier a French leader and Her foster father LeThiere). His body was exhumed and re buried at Pere Lachaise on 24th may 1898.35 persons were present in the reburial. His grand son Dr Suss Hahnemannalso attendedthe reburial he was the only eye witness to the both burials. The inscription Hahnemann chose to be inscribed on the tomb was NON INUTILIS VIXI (not lived in vain). He proved 99drugs.
1878-Second wife Melanie died.

J.T.Kent (1849-1916)
He was the professor of anatomy in U.S.A. He converted to homeopathy after his wife’s disease (Insomnia,anaemia) was cured by Dr.Phalen.

Works

  • Repertory of homoeopathic materia medica(1897)
  • Lectures on homoeopathic philosophy(1900)
  • Lectures on homoeopathic materia medica(1905)
  • What the doctor needs to know in order to make a successful prescription

ConstantineHering(1800-1880)
Known as father of homoeopathy in America. Thesis for his Post graduation was demedicine futura (The medicine of future). He converted to Homoeopathy after gangrene of his hand was treated by Kummer disciple of Hahnemann with Ars.alb.1833 he established Allentown
Academy. He proved 104 drugs. (In certain books mentioned as 72)

Works

  • 10 volumes of Herings guiding symptoms
  • The homoeopathic domestic physician(1835)
  • Model cases
  • Condensed materia medica(1877
  • The essentials for judging Hahnemann correctly(1847)

Clemens Maria Franz Von Boeninghausen(1785-1864)
He was an allopath and his disease(pulmonary tuberculosis)was treated with pulsatilla by Dr.A.Weihe. After that he converted to . homoeopathy.

Timothy Field Allen (1837-1902)
He was the author of encyclopedia of
Pure materia medica(12volumes)

Henry C.Allen (1830-1909)-
Works
Allen`s key notes
Therapeutics of intermittent fever
Materia medica of nosodes

John Henry Clarke
Works
Edited Homoeopathic world
Dictionary of practical materia medica(1900)
A birds eye view of organon. He proved many nosodes like pertussin,morbillinum,parotidinum.

John Martin Honingberger-
History of homoeopathy in India is associated with Honingberger,
A French doctor.he came to India in 1829-30 and was invited to treat Maharaja Renjit singh of Punjab.He Wrote a book on his experience Thirty five years in the east. His first patient in Lahore was adopted son of General Allard

Babu Rajendar Lal Dutt
He is known as father of homoeopathy in India.

Mahndra Lal Sircar-In 1868
He started Calcutta Journal of medicine. It is the first journal of
Homoeopathy in India.

Pratap Chandra Majumdar -
He edited Indian Homoeopathic Review second oldest homoeopathic Journal in India..He along with Dr.D.N.Roy established Calcutta Homoeopathic Medical college in 1881.

Miscellaneous

  • Archive fur die homoepathische heilkunst ,first homoeopathic periodical was published by Stapf in1822
  • British Journal of homeopathy published in 1843 byDrysdale,Russel and Black
  • Charles Hempel translated Chronic disease and materia medica pura (1846).Dudgeon`s translation of materia medica pura came in 1880.
  • W.Boericke published his materia medica in 1901
  • Addition to materia medica pura was published by Stapf in1836
  • C.M.Boger edited homoeopathic recorder
  • Sydenham is known as English Hippocrates.
  • Materia peccans means material cause of disease
  • Tolle causam means cause of disease
  • Prima causa morbi means primary cause of disease
  • Cessat effectus cessat causa means when the effect is removed disease is removed
  • Nening symptoms –Nenning was a surgeon after getting acquainted with homoeopathy He conducted Proving on girls working in an institution.He has done proving in healthy human beings but his provings are considered unreliable. Hahnemann did not give credence to proving conducted by Nenning.
  • Accessory miasm associated with cow pox vaccination
  • Half acute miasm Have a long incubation period and violent termination example hydrophobia.
  • Hahnemann died of bronchial catarrha
  • Hering died of angina pectoris .He was laid to rest at Laurell hill cemetery
  • Kent died of Brights disease
  • Boenninghause died of stroke
  • Boger died of food poisoning
  • Burnett wrote 50reasons for being homoeopath
  • Works of Hippocrates is collected as corpus hipocraticum.
  • German central association for homoeopaths was founded in 1829.

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Comments

3 Responses so far.

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