Dr Saji K
Acute Miliary Tuberculosis.
Acute infectious disease,characterised by the formation of miliary tubercles most frequently in the lungs and brain. It is a secondary disease, being due to embolic infection from primary tubercular lesion in any other tissue or organ. The exciting cause is bacillus tuberculosis of Koch.
The lesions are inter-alveolar, in contradistinction to the lesions of primary pulmonary consumption which are intra-alveolar.
Symptoms are cough, tachypnoea,tachycardia, moderate rise of temperature, etc.
Aliment : Food.
Asthma : Dry : The attack is usually sudden, violent and of short duration. The cough is slight with less expectoration.
Humid : The paroxysm is gradual and protracted, and the cough severe.
Millari : A certain affection of children which Millar himself styles `asthma acutum’. Some authors says it is laryngitis.
Apoplexy : From Greek – Apoplessein : `to cripple by a stroke.
Dictionary meaning : Stroke. Sudden unconsciousness usually caused by cerebral embolism, hemorrhage or thrombosis. There is sterterous breathing, incontinence of urine and faeces, and a varying degree of hemiplegia.
Types found in old medicine texts are :
Apoplexia Sanguinea : It cosists of an intracerebral hemorrhage, forming clots of various dimensions.
Apoplexia Serosa : In acute hydrocephalus, it sometimes happens that the exudation of serum takes place so suddenly and so profusely as to cause all the symptoms of an apoplectic stroke and it is called apoplexia serosa.
Pulmonary apoplexy. : Arises from the rupture of large usually arterial blood vessels.
Bright’s Disease. : A generic term embracing the various forms of organic kidney disease of inflammatory origin, with resulting albuminuria and dropsy.
Bronchocele : Goitre.
Cachexia :A deranged state of the body, arising from vitiated blood.
Catalepsy : ( Greek : katalepsis – a seizing.)
Term used by psychiatrists to describe sustained immobility.
It is a sudden loss of all voluntary muscle power, so quickly befalling all muscles that the different parts of body remain precisely in the same position in which the attack finds them, thus making the patient appear like a statue.
Catarrh : ( Greek : Katarrheein – to flow down ) Inflammation of a mucous membrane, with constant flow of mucous.
Chlorosis :Chlorosis is a form of primary anemia characterized by a marked diminution in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, and a slight decrease in the number of red blood corpuscles. In severe and persistent cases there is often observed an imperfect development of the organs of circulation and reproduction.
The albuminates and leucocytes seem not to be affected, and this is an important pathological distinction between it and anemia, in which latter there is always a decrease of the plasmatic albuminates.
Choleric :Easily irritated, inclined to anger.
Colliquative :A term applied to various discharges which produce rapid
Costiveness : Constipation.
Crusta Lactea or Milk Crust.
This disease is an eczema of nursing infants.The disease usually commences on forehead and cheeks of the child.
Its main symptoms are delirium and tremor associated with sleeplessness and sensory delusions. It is always the consequence of habitual abuse of spirituous liquors.
Alcoholism in which the drinking occurs in bouts, often with long periods of sobriety between.
This weakness is associated with inability for intellectual work, loss of memory, slow flow of thoughts, and dull apperception gradually brings the victim into a state of enfeeblement near that of idiocy.
Dyscrasia : A bad habit of body, producing generally a diseased condition of the system.
Ecthyma : Isolated large pustules.
Upon a red and swollen surface single pustules appear, of the size of a pea, which contain a yellow purulent, or dark coloured fluid, if there be blood mixed with it. They are surrounded by a red areola, and appear most frequently upon the extremities, on the seat, on the chest, and on the neck, less often on face.
Ephemeral : Of short duration.
Favus : Honey comb Ring worm.,Tinea Favosa or Maligna.,Porrigo favosa or Lupinosa.
Is a vegetable parasite, the achorion Schoenleinii.
It is used to be classed among the pustular eruptions, because it first appears as a small yellow spot, the sheath of hair being filled with the fungous growth; but it has no tendency to suppurate. It grows with great rapidity, and forms a large, hard, dry crusts, which have a peculiar mouse like odour. The pathology of favus is best understood by considering it essentially to be a form of abnormal nutrition, with exudation of a matter analogous to, if not identical with, that of a tubercle, which constitutes a soil for the germination of cryptogrammic plants, the presence of which is the path gnomonic of the disease.
This is the deep type of inflammation of the thumb or one of the fingers. The inflammation involves all or nearly all of the structures of the finger, and is frequently followed by the destruction of one or more of the phalanges.
Fever Anticipating : In intermittent fever sometimes it happens that the paroxysms keep no regular time. If they sets in earlier they are termed `anticipating’.
Fever Bilious : Gastric catarrh and fever complicated with an abundant secretion of bile.
In some cases, gastritis is attended with a higher or less degree of fever, and then it goes under the name Gastric fever. The fever generally augments in the first few days, shows an evening exacerbation, and may last from one to two weeks,when the patient gradually recovers.
Fever Hay. :
It is a slight febrile catarrh, which affects the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane of the nose, and upper air passages, and frequently, but not always, is attended by asthmatic difficulties, which sometimes are of great intensity. It attacks only people peculiarly disposed to it, and regularly recurs every year when the rose bloom ( rose cold ), or when hay is made ( hay fever, hay asthma ), during the months of May till September ( Summer catarrh ). Pollen is the exciting cause.
Fever Hectic :
It is invariably associated with some organic affection of some important parts, whether by congestion or by indurations. It is characterized by its aggravation after eating and by an increased development of heat.
Usually the temperature increases by night fall. there will be flushes of heat.
Fever Miliary :
This affection is sometimes an original disease, but more frequently associated with some other malady and even occasionally accompanies other chronic diseases, in which latter instance it may generally be considered as an evidence of some internal constitutional taint.
The primary feature of the disease consists of a great number of exceedingly small,round, red pimples, which are soon converted into white vesicles, afterwards become opaque, and end in scurf; they are irregularly scattered, of the size of millet seeds, and when the hand is passed over the cutaneous surface, a sensation is experienced as if caused by the presence of small grains of sand beneath the scarf-skin.
Fever Milk : Fever or uneasiness occurring in women after confinement, during the first period of the process of secretion of milk.
Fever Nervous. :
Abortive typhoid fever.Typhoid fever symptoms but of a mild type. The temperature is not that much intense. On the eighth or ninth day there is a considerable morning remission, which sinks at the end of the second or during the third week to a normal state, with only slight aggravations in the evening. Still the patient gain their usual strength quite slowly.
Fever Postponing :
In intermittent fever, sometimes it happens that the paroxysms keep no regular time. If they sets in later, they are called `postponing’.
Fever Relapsing. : Typhus recurrence
The relapsing fever consists in the majority of cases of two ( seldom more ) paroxysms which are separated by an interval of comparative health, lasting from four to seven days or to fourteen days. This long remission made the second paroxysm appear like a relapse, wherefore the `relapsing fever’ was applied to it by English physicians.
It is highly contagious, occurs epidemically and is predisposed by filth and overcrowding.
Fever Scarlet :
It is an acute infectious and contagious disease, characterized by the appearance on the body of a diffuse scarlet eruption. The main features are eruption, angina (throat) and inflammation of the kidneys.
Fever, Thermic : Insolatio.
Caused by the influence of excessive heat.
Grippe : Influenza.
Ichor : A thin watery humor flowing from ulcers.
Incipient : commencing.
Insolation : Fever Thermic.
Langour : Feebleness, weakness, lassitude of body.
Lumbago : Violent pains of a rheumatic character, in the loins, either periodical or permanent, frequently accompanied with a considerable degree of fever.
Matter : Pus collected in or emitted from an abscess, pustule &c.
Miliary rash : Sudamina.
Noma : Gangrene of the cheeks.
Starts as a small blister, situated in the middle of the cheek or towards the corner of the mouth on the inside of the cheek. It is mostly found in the childhood.
Obstipation : Constipation.
Onyx. :In corneitis ( keratitis ) when in consequence of inflammation suppuration takes place between the layers of the corneal laminae, we have an interstitial abscess of the cornea, which appear either as a yellowish spot with whitish circumference in any part of the cornea, or as a deposit of pus diffused throughout the cornea, so that the whole looks yellow. the pus may gravitate to the lower margin of the cornea forming there a curved line which resembles the white mark at the root of the nail,hence it is called Onyx.
Atrphic condition of the nasal mucous membrane in chronic coryza, with associated crusting and fetor.
Pannus : Corneal vascularisation, often caused by conjuctival irritation.
Pabulum : Food.
Critical : is to be distinguished by the following points :
It affords general relief; every source of suffering will be modified with its occurrence and the regularizes of pulse will be subsided with its onset.It will be warm and clammy in nature. Develops over the whole surface simultaneously.
All restlessness, nervous irritation or mental uneasiness will subside with it and there appear a calm, even, undisturbed sleep.
It will be continuous. It will appear at a particular period in relation to the duration and course of a fever.
Phthisis Florida : This is an acute form of tuberculosis where there is a rapid infiltration and tubercle
formation, followed by extensive destruction and degeneration.
Plethora vera : (True plethora)
Fullness of the arteries and veins, repletion of single organs, florid complexion, and increased temperature of the body.
Serous plethora : Increase in blood serum and decrease of corpuscles, which characterizes itself by the fullness of the arteries and veins, paleness, or else quick change of color.
Plethora ad vasa. : ( False plethora )
This is not too much blood in general,but too great an afflux of blood into the blood vessels as in fevers, in consequence of bodily and mental exertions, spirituous, irritating drugs, etc.
Plica Polonica. :Matted hair, is according to Hebra, an eczema of the scalp, forming crusts and matting the hair together in a most hideous manner. ( Found in Poland ).
Podagra : Gout.
Pompholyx : Pemphigus.
Pemphigus foliaceous : begins with a single blister, which is continually increasing, until the whole surface of the body is literally skinned and then covered by a brownish crust. It often takes a fatal termination.
Porrigo devalcans : Alopecia circumscripta.
Caused by Microsporum audonini., which attacks the hair in isolated patches, and the denuded spots are left clean and polished and of a marble whiteness.
It exhibits flat papules, which have the same color as the surrounding skin. when broken, they discharge a small drop of clear fluid, and are attended with an intolerable itching. Want of personal cleanliness, of the proper change of clothing, and poor and unwholesome food are probably its most frequent causes.
It is found in all ages with exception of the first years of childhood.
It is found principally on the extensor sides, especially of the lower limbs and on the back.
Prurigo mitis : Disease confined to lower extremities.
Prurigo formicans : Graver forms.
Prurigo pudendorum: Confined to the anus,penis,scrotum and vulva.
Prurigo Contagiosa. : Prairie itch.
Hyperaesthesia of the cutaneous nerves, frequently a reflex symptom, without any eruption, or an itching of the skin in consequence of some foreign material, like bile, coursing in the blood and irritating the cutaneous nerves, as in jaundice.
Prairie Itch. :
An acute inflammation of the skin. It may be preceded by the premonitory symptoms of malaise, headache, and slight febrile disturbance; or its onset may be first marked by the appearance of erythematous points, covered with small transparent vesicles, varying in size from a pin’s head to a mustard seed, and situated for the most part on the neck shoulders,back and outer surface of the limbs. It is accompanied by intolerable itching.
Psoriasis guttata : Psoriasis commences in small, red, somewhat elevated,roundish spots, like drops, which are soon covered with dry,oblong, white scales. This stage is called Psoriasis guttata.
Psoriasis diffusa : When the spots increase in number, they necessarily coalesce as they grow and form large irregular surfaces, which are covered with scales of various thickness and adhesiveness. This stage is called Psoriasis diffusa.
Psoriasis annulata : They sometimes accumulate in round patches. While on the periphery new spots still appear, those in the centre dry up, and this give rise to a circular eruption called Psoriasis annulata ( Ring worm ).
Psoriasis gyrata.: Several circles of psoriasis annulata meet, their peripheric lines are broken off by already healed up centres, and now they form various figures, parts of circles,straight lines etc, and is called psoriasis gyrata.
Psoriasis inveterata. : In some cases the morbid process of skin leisions continues for a long time, and causes the skin to become thickened, rigid, and cracked. This takes place especially in the diffuse and irregular forms; then it is called Psoriasis inveterate.
Psoriasis syphilitic : The circumspect form of psoriasis. This is always of syphilitic origin.
Renal sand consists of fine powdery deposits.
Renal gravel at most attains the size of a pin head.
Renal stones are of a larger size, but seldom exceed that of a bean.
Roetheln : Rubella.
Rose : Erysipelas.
Scarf Skin : The epidermis or outer layer of the skin.
A cachexia which manifests itself as a nutritive disturbance in the external skin, the mucous membrane, joints, bones, organs of sense, and above all in the lymphatic glands in such a manner that individuals thus affected betray the internal disorders by a peculiar habitués. According as the faulty nutrition leads either to a deficiency in fat on account of fatty deposits in some parts of the body, or to a deficiency in fat on account of too rapid growth, scrofulous have been divided into a torpid and erethic form.
Habitus of Torpid : Uncommonly large head, coarse features, thick swollen nose and upper lip, broad cheek bones, large belly, swollen glands on the neck, soft flappy muscles.
Habitus of Erethic : Conspicuous white skin, which reddens easily, and through which the blood vessels shine forth; red lips and cheeks; bluish color of sclerotic, which gives to the eyes an expression of languor; the muscles of such individuals are thin and flabby; the weight of the body does not correspond with the size, showing a want of solidity of the bones; their teeth are fair, bluish, glistening, long and narrow, and their hair is soft.
The majority of cases lie between these two extremes , or represent a mixture of the characters of both.
The exciting cause of the pathological changes in the lymphatic glands is considered to be the bacillus tuberculosis. The scrofulous diathesis can be inherited from scrofulous or tuberculosis parents, although children from such parents may be entirely free from any scrofulous taint.
Singultous : Hiccough.
Softening of Brain :
Red softening : Inflammatory lesion of the cerebral substance, second stage of encephalitis, leading to abscess of the brain.
Yellow softening : It is the consequence of a hemorrhagic infarction, through the plugging up of cerebral vessel, which may lead however by irritation to a true encephalitis.
Squamous : Scaly.
St.Anthony’s Fire. : Erysipelas
Stenocardia : Angina pectoris.
Associated with a peculiar sensation of anxiety and constriction.
Stomacace : Putrid sore mouth.
A destructive ulceration of the borders of the gums, producing extensive swelling of the entire mouth and cadaver breath. It is mainly a disease of children. When found in adults, it may be a consequence of mercurial abuse or an enfeebled state of the system, unseemliness, poor food, and atmospheric influences.
Struma : Scrofula.; Goitre.
Sudamina : Miliary rash.
The stoppage of the outlets of sudorific glands occurs most frequently in diseases in which there has been great dryness of skin previous to the outbreak of the sweat, as for example, in the first weeks of typhus.
Miliaria alba : Transparent, minute vesicles upon a naturally colored skin.
Miliaria rubra : similar eruptions upon a skin which is reddened by hyperemia or hemorrhagic effusions.
Sycosis : Fig warts, Condylomata.
Tetter : Eczema.
Tobsucht : High degree of melancholic exaltation.
Trismus : Lockjaw.
Typhus :Literal meaning is ` smoke or stupefaction ‘.
The term has been used to denote diseases all of which were characterized by a dry tongue, stupor, delirium, and great prostration.
Typhus includes three forms of low fevers. They are
Typhus exanthematicus or Petechial typhus ;
Tyhpus abdominalis or Ileo typhus or Typhoid fever and
Wen : Sebaceous cyst.In eye, fatty tumor of the lids.
Whitlow : Run around.: Panaritium : Paronychia.
Superficial inflammation of thumb or one of the fingers which terminates in suppuration.
Wry neck : Permanent contraction of the muscles of one side of the neck. It is caused by long lasting torticollis(stiff neck)
Zymotic : Contagious; Infectious