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Date posted: March 31, 2012

Dr Rajneesh Kumar Sharma
Dr (Km) Ruchi Rajput

Article outline
Introduction< Origin< Synonyms and related words< Types< Pathophysiology< Signs and Symptoms<  Severe Malarial Disease< Differential Diagnosis< Transmission< Malaria and Homoeopathy < Repertory of Malaria< Top Ten Antimalarial Remedies.

Introduction
Malaria is defined as a disease caused by the presence of the sporozoan Plasmodium in red blood cells, usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles that previously sucked the blood from a person with malaria.

Origin
It. malo (fem. mala), bad, + aria, air, referring to the old theory of the miasmatic origin of the disease.

Synonyms and related words
Jungle fever, marsh fever, paludal fever, acute malaria, airport malaria, algid malaria, autochthonous malaria, benign tertian malaria, bilious remittent malaria, cerebral malaria, chronic malaria, double tertian malaria, dysenteric algid malaria, falciparum malaria, gastric algid malaria, induced malaria, intermittent malaria, malaria comatose, malariae malaria, malignant tertian malaria, monkey malaria, nonan malaria, ovale malaria, pernicious malaria, quartan malaria, quotidian malaria, relapsing malaria, remittent malaria, simian malaria, tertian malaria, therapeutic malaria, vivax malaria.

Types
There are four types of malaria. The three types of malaria (vivax, malariae, and ovale) are generally a little less serious and are not immediately life-threatening. The fourth, most serious type is falciparum malaria, which can be life-threatening.

Pathophysiology
Human infection begins with the exoerythrocytic cycle in liver parenchyma cells, followed by a series of erythrocytic schizogenous cycles repeated at regular intervals; production of gametocytes in other red cells provides future gametes for another mosquito infection; characterized by episodic severe chills and high fever, prostration, occasionally fatal termination (Psora).

Often, malaria parasites first damage the infected red blood cells directly and then initiate a chain reaction of nonspecific inflammatory processes (Psora) and later on immunological responses (Psora) aggravating further the inflammatory reactions.

Pathological processes in malaria are the consequence of the erythrocytic cycle of the parasites. Merozoites invade erythrocytes, in which they develop through early trophozoites (ring forms) to late trophozoites and eventually to schizonts. During this process, development of knobs and cytoadherence or rosetting with the knobs (Sycosis) play important roles for the falciparum malaria patient to be severely ill. Expression of variant surface neoantigens stimulates the reticuloendothelial system (Psora) and can cause anemia, tissue hypoxia and cytokine production (Sycosis). Associated fever, paroxysms, headache and other pains (Psora) are thought to result from cytokines such as interleukins, interferons and tumor necrosis factor released from macrophages or other cells at the time of schizont rupture (Syphilis).

Paroxysms are recurrent febrile episodes, characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infections, which coincide with the rupture of schizont-infected erythrocytes in the patients’ circulation. There is formation of prominent aggregates of leukocytes in vitro (Sycosis) in the presence of parasite and host factors released during paroxysms (Psora).

Leukocyte aggregation is identified as associated with paroxysms in P. vivax infections. This phenomenon is mediated by plasma factors including host-derived cytokines and lipids of putative parasite origin (Psora). The more active cholesterol/triglyceride(s), however, represent a novel malarial toxin, which is a new class of biologically active lipid associated with the paroxysm of P. vivax malaria (Sycosis).

Signs and Symptoms
The symptoms of malaria include cycles of chills, fever, sweats, muscle aches and headache that recur every few days (Psora). There can also be vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, and yellowing of the skin and eyes. Persons with severe falciparum malaria can develop bleeding problems (Tubercular), shock, kidney and liver failure (Syphilis), central nervous system problems, coma, and die. In untreated people, malaria may persist for years. The period between the bite of an infected mosquito and the appearance of symptoms may be as short as seven days, but sometimes people don’t become ill until eight to ten months after the bite.

Malaria can manifest in children with a wide range of symptoms. Lack of fever periodicity is common and does not rule out the diagnosis of malaria. Periodicity (Psora) may develop after a week of infection with P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. A majority of children do not present with severe disease. Instead, young children exhibit fever, gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, irritability, and respiratory symptoms. Pallor  (Psora) and splenomegaly (Sycosis) may be more specific indicators of malaria, but there are no clinical signs that provide sufficient specificity.

Severe Malarial Disease
The category of severe disease includes patients whose presenting signs include severe anemia, coma from which the patient cannot be aroused, pulmonary edema (Syco-Psora), circulatory failure (Psora- Syphilis), disseminated intravascular coagulation (Psora- Sycosis), acidosis (Psora), renal failure (Psora- Syphilis), and repeated generalized convulsions (Tubercular). Non–P. falciparum malaria can cause marked symptoms but rarely causes severe malaria or death. P. vivax–induced hypersplenism can result in splenic rupture (Psora- Sycosis- Syphilis), however. Aside from the species of organism causing the malaria, host factors also modulate disease severity, and, of greatest importance, the age of patients from endemic areas modulates the manifestations of the disease. Nonimmune (Psora- Sycosis- Syphilis) children of all ages are at risk for severe malaria secondary to P. falciparum.

Indicators of life-threatening malaria include impaired consciousness, particularly if associated with extensor posturing; respiratory distress; jaundice (Psora); and laboratory markers including hypoglycemia (Psora-Syphilis), hyperlactemia (Sycosis) (plasma lactate level >5 mmol/L), and presence of late-stage forms on the blood smear. Respiratory distress with acidosis (Psora) and hyperlactemia has been found to be a very important indicator of prognosis and may suggest total tissue hypoxia (Psora- Syphilis). Signs of malarial hyperpneic syndrome (Psora- Sycosis) include alar flaring (Psora), chest recession (Tubercular) (intercostal or subcostal), and use of accessory muscles for respiration (Psora) or abnormally deep breathing (Sycosis). Metabolic acidosis generally improves rapidly with antimalarial treatment and with oral or intravenous fluids.

Differential diagnosis
Malaria has nonspecific symptoms and clinical findings, and a differential diagnosis must take into consideration other common illnesses to which the patient may have been exposed, such as influenza, viral hepatitis, typhoid, diarrhoeal illness, respiratory infection, bacteraemia, meningitis, tuberculosis, HIV infection, and other parasitic infections. Because of immunity, many patients are parasitaemic without disease, and the simple presence of parasites in a patient with fever can be misleading.

Transmission
Malaria is spread by the bite of particular types of mosquito. Untreated people with malaria may be a source of mosquito infection for up to three years.  Biting a person with malaria in their blood infects the mosquito.  After a period of development inside the mosquito, malaria can be transmitted to another person when the same mosquito bites them.  The mosquito is infected for life.

Homoeopathy and Malaria
No system of medicine other than Homoeopathy considers all the alterations, even slightest, rather scarcely noticeable, in individual’s healthy state. In other words, Homoeopathy is the uniquely keen system of medicine which not only evaluates the fertility and characteristics of soil but also the environmental factors affecting the cultivation of various crops and their evolution too.

Therefore chances of missing the correct diagnosis are extremely rare in Homoeopathy. While taking case history, mentals to particulars, modalities, individual’s characteristics and even concomitants are considered of great value. That is why hypertriglyceridemia running with malaria is of high importance in Homoeopathy while other systems can ignore this.

Repertory of Malaria

  • MIND – MENTAL SYMPTOMS – malaria; from suppressed- elat.
  • EAR – DISCHARGES – malaria; after- carb-v.
  • HEARING – IMPAIRED – malaria; after- carb-v.
  • FACE – PAIN – malaria; after suppressed- nat-m.
  • ABDOMEN – FLATULENCE – malarial- querc-r-g-s.
  • RECTUM – HEMORRHAGE from anus – malarial fevers, in- cact.
  • KIDNEYS – INFLAMMATION – malaria; from- Ars. eup-per. ter.
  • FEMALE GENITALIA/SEX – ATONY of uterus – malaria; with history of- chin.
  • CHILL – EXPOSURE, after – malarial influences- ARN. carb-ac. CEDR. Chin. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. corn-f. corn. Eucal. eup-per. Ferr. ip. Nat-m. Nat-s. Nux-v. PSOR. Sulph.
  • SKIN – ERUPTIONS – urticaria – malaria; from suppressed- elat.
  • GENERALS – ANEMIA – malaria; from- alst. Ars. Nat-m. Ost. rob.
  • GENERALS – CACHEXIA – malaria; from- ars.
  • GENERALS – CONVALESCENCE; ailments during – malaria; after- Chinin-ar.
  • GENERALS – CONVALESCENCE; ailments during – malaria; after – never well since or recurrent malaria- malar.
  • GENERALS – EMACIATION – appetite with emaciation; ravenous – children; in – malarial regions; born in- nat-m.
  • GENERALS – FAMILY HISTORY of – malaria- carc. CHIN. Nat-m.
  • GENERALS – HISTORY; personal – malaria; of- chinin-s. nat-m.
  • GENERALS – MALARIA- alst-s. am-pic. anemps. aran. arn. ars. bapt. basil. bid-p. canch. caps. cean. cedr. chin. chinin-s. conyz-sm. cymbop-ci. Eucal. eup-a. Eup-per. eup-pur. gard-t. germ-met. guiz-sc. ip. lept. malar. markh-l. methyl. mik-c. mom-ch. nat-m. nat-s. oci-g. oci-sa. parth. plan. Pop. pyrog. senec-ma. sulph. tarax. triclis-g. urt-u. verbe-h. vern-am.
  • GENERALS – PAIN – malarial- aran. Ars. Cedr. chin. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. meny. nat-m. nicc-s. stann. sulph.
  • HYPOCHONDRIA – Aggravation – malaria, after- Ars. cean. cedr. CHIN. ferr. ign. Kali-i. Nat-m.
  • MIND – IRRITABILITY – malarial ataxy- ARG-N.
  • MIND – WORK – impossible – malarial ataxy, in- ARG-N.
  • HEAD – PAIN – noon – agg. – malarial origin- chinin-s.
  • HEAD – PAIN – malaria, in- ARS. caps. cedr. chin. CHININ-S. cupr-act. EUP-PER. gels. NAT-M.
  • HEAD – PAIN – study and exertion after malaria, from- gels.
  • HEAD – PAIN – cramping – study and exertion after malaria, from- gels.
  • EARS – DISCHARGES – general – malaria, after- carb-v.
  • EARS – PAIN – agues, malaria, after suppression of- PULS.
  • STOMACH – APPETITE – ravenous, canine, excessive – malaria, after suppressed- EUP-PER.
  • STOMACH – VOMITING – general – bile – fever, during – malaria- eup-per.
  • ABDOMEN – ENLARGED – liver – malaria, with- chion. cory.
  • ABDOMEN – ENLARGED – spleen – malaria, after- cean. cory.
  • RECTUM – DIARRHEA – general – malaria, with- alst-s.
  • RECTUM – DYSENTERY – malaria, with- gels.
  • RECTUM – HEMORRHAGE – anus, from – malarial fever, in, and with heart sensations- cact.
  • KIDNEYS – INFLAMMATION – malaria, from- ARS. eup-per. ter.
  • FEMALE – ATONY of uterus, inertia uteri – metrorrhagia, in – malarial- chin.
  • EXTREMITIES – SWELLING – general – lower limbs – malaria, during- chinin-s.
  • CHILL – EXPOSURE, after – malarial influences, to- ARAN. carb-ac. cean. CEDR. CHIN. chinin-ar. CHININ-S. EUCAL. eup-per. FERR. ip. NAT-M. NAT-S. NUX-V. PSOR. SULPH.
  • FEVER, HEAT – INTERMITTENT, chronic, ague, malarial- abies-n. absin. acon. agar. alst-s. alst. ALUM. am-c. am-m. AM-PIC. anac. ang. ant-c. ant-o. ant-t. anth. APIS aran. arg-n. arist-cl. arn. ars-br. ARS-I. ars-s-f. ARS. arum-t. asaf. asar. asc-t. aur. aza. baj. bapt. bar-c. BELL. benz-ac. BOL-LA. bol-lu. bov. BRY. bufo BUNI-O. buth-a. cact. calad. calam. calc-ar. CALC-P. calc-s. CALC. calli-h. camph-br. camph. canch. cann-s. canth. CAPS. CARB-AC. carb-an. CARB-V. card-b. caust. cean. CEDR. cent. ceph. cham. chel. chelo. chin-b. CHIN. CHININ-AR. CHININ-M. CHININ-PUR. chinin-s. chion. cic. cimx. CINA cist. citl-vg. clem. coc-c. cocc. coff. colch. coloc. CORN-F. corn. croc. crot-h. cupr. cycl. dict. dros. ECHI. elat. EUCAL. euon-a. eup-c. EUP-PER. EUP-PUR. euphr. ferr-ar. FERR-I. ferr-p. FERR. fl-ac. fum. gels. GENT-L. gent-q. geum glech. graph. grin. guare. HELIA. hell. HEP. hydr. hyos. IGN. ilx-a. IOD. IP. IRIS kali-ar. kali-bi. kali-c. kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. KALI-S. lac-d. LACH. laur. led. LEPR. lept. lil-t. lob. LYC. lys. mag-c. mag-m. mag-p. maland. malar. mangi. meny. merc. methyl. mez. mill. mosch. mur-ac. naja nat-c. NAT-M. nat-p. NAT-S. nicc-met. NIT-AC. nux-m. NUX-V. ol-j. op. ost. par. PETR. ph-ac. phel. PHOS. phyt. plan. plb. podo. polyg-a. polyp-p. POP. prun-cs. PSOR. ptel. puls. pyre-p. PYROG. querc. ran-b. ran-s. rheum rhod. RHUS-T. SABAD. sabin. samb. sang. sec. sed-ac. sel. senec. SEP. SIL. SPIG. spong. stann. STAPH. stram. sul-ac. SULPH. sym-r. tarax. TARENT. TELA tell. teucr. ther. THUJ. TUB. ulm-r. urt-u. valer. verat-v. verat. verb. verbe-h. vip. zinc.
  • FEVER, HEAT – INTERMITTENT, chronic, ague, malarial – prophylactic – regions – before entering malarial- nat-m.
  • FEVER, HEAT – INTERMITTENT, chronic, ague, malarial – prophylactic – regions – on getting into malarial- ars.
  • FEVER, HEAT – REMITTENT – malarial- eucal. eup-per. gels.
  • SKIN – ERUPTIONS – urticaria, hives – malaria, from suppressed- elat.
  • SKIN – SWELLING – general – edematous, dropsical – malaria, after- ARS. dulc. kali-c. sep.
  • GENERALITIES – MALARIA, ague, ailments from- alst-s. ARS. carb-v. cean. cedr. CHIN. cory. eup-a. eup-per. ferr. gels. ign. kali-i. malar. NAT-M. ost. plan. polyp-p. psor. rob. sulph. tarax. ter. verbe-h.
  • GENERALITIES – INFLAMMATION – nerves, neuritis – malaria, in- tor.
  • GENERALITIES – PAIN – bones – malaria or influenza, in- eup-per.
  • GENERALITIES – PAIN – neuralgic – malaria, in- cedr.
  • CLINICAL – ANEMIA – hemolytic – malaria, from- alst-s. ARS. NAT-M. ost. rob.
  • CLINICAL – CACHEXIA – malaria, after- cory.
  • CLINICAL – DROPSY – malaria, after- nat-m.
  • MIND – IRRITABILITY – malarial ataxy- Arg-n.
  • MIND – WORK – impossible – malarial ataxy, in- Arg-n.
  • HEAD PAIN – GENERAL – noon – malarial origin- chinin-s.
  • HEAD PAIN – GENERAL – malaria, in- Ars. caps. cedr. chin. Chinin-s. cupr-act. Eup-per. gels. Nat-m.
  • HEAD PAIN – CRAMPING – study and exertion after malaria, from- gels.
  • EAR – DISCHARGES – malaria, after- carb-v.
  • EAR – PAIN – General – agues, malaria, after suppression of- Puls.
  • STOMACH – APPETITE – ravenous, canine, excessive – malaria, after suppressed- Eup-per.
  • ABDOMEN – ENLARGED – Spleen – malaria, after- cean.
  • RECTUM – DIARRHEA – malaria, with- alst-s.
  • RECTUM – DYSENTERY – malaria, with- gels.
  • RECTUM – HEMORRHAGE – anus, from – malarial fever, in, and with heart sensations- cact.
  • KIDNEYS – INFLAMMATION – malaria, from- Ars. eup-per. ter.
  • FEMALE – ATONY of Uterus, inertia uteri – metrorrhagia, in – malarial- chin.
  • EXTREMITIES – SWELLING – Lower Limbs – malarial- chinin-s.
  • CHILL – EXPOSURE, after – malarial influences- ARAN. carb-ac. cean. CEDR. Chin. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. Eucal. eup-per. Ferr. ip. Nat-m. Nat-s. Nux-v. PSOR. Sulph. 
  • FEVER, HEAT – INTERMITTENT, chronic, ague, malarial- abies-n. acon. agar. alst-s. alst. ALUM. am-c. am-m. Am-pic. anac. ang. ant-c. ant-o. ant-t. Apis aran. arg-n. arist-cl. arn. ars-br. Ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. arum-t. asaf. asar. aur. aza. baj. bapt. bar-c. BELL. benz-ac. Bol-la. bol-lu. bov. Bry. bufo buth-a. cact. calad. calc-ar. Calc-p. calc-s. CALC. calli-h. camph-br. camph. canch. cann-s. canth. Caps. Carb-ac. carb-an. Carb-v. caust. cean. Cedr. cent. ceph. cham. chel. chelo. chin-b. Chin. Chinin-ar. Chinin-m. chinin-s. chion. cic. cimx. Cina cist. clem. coc-c. cocc. coff. colch. coloc. Corn-f. corn. croc. crot-h. cupr. cycl. dros. Echi. elat. Eucal. euon-a. eup-per. Eup-pur. euphr. ferr-ar. Ferr-i. ferr-p. FERR. fl-ac. gels. gent-l. gent-q. graph. guare. Helia. hell. Hep. hydr. hyos. Ign. ilx-a. Iod. Ip. Iris kali-ar. kali-bi. kali-c. kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. KALI-S. lac-d. Lach. laur. led. lept. lil-t. lob. LYC. lys. mag-c. mag-m. mag-p. maland. malar. meny. merc. methyl. mosch. mur-ac. naja nat-c. NAT-M. nat-p. NAT-S. nicc-met. NIT-AC. nux-m. Nux-v. ol-j. op. ost. par. Petr. ph-ac. phel. Phos. phyt. plan. plb. podo. polyg-a. polyp-p. Pop. prun-cs. PSOR. ptel. puls. PYROG. querc. ran-b. ran-s. rheum rhod. Rhus-t. Sabad. sabin. samb. sang. sec. sed-ac. sel. senec. SEP. Sil. Spig. spong. stann. Staph. stram. sul-ac. SULPH. tarax. TARENT. Tela tell. teucr. ther. Thuj. TUB. urt-u. valer. verat-v. verat. verb. verbe-h. vip. zinc. 
  • FEVER, HEAT – REMITTENT – malarial- eucal. eup-per. gels.
  • SKIN – ERUPTIONS – urticaria – malaria, from suppressed- elat.
  • GENERALITIES – ANEMIA – hemolytic – malaria, from- alst-s. Ars. Nat-m. ost. rob.
  • GENERALITIES – DROPSY – malaria, after- nat-m.
  • GENERALITIES – PAIN – General – bones – malaria or influenza, in- eup-per.
  • HEAD – Headache – cause – Malaria- Ars. caps. cedr. chin. chinin-s. cupr-act. Eup-per. gels. Nat-m.
  • FACE – Prosopalgia, pain – Type – Toxic- ars. chin. ip. nat-m.
  • URINARY SYSTEM – Kidneys – Inflammation – from – malaria- Ars. eup-per. ter.
  • FEMALE SEXUAL SYSTEM – Uterus – Haemorrhage – From – uterine atony, malarial cases- chin.
  • SKIN – Urticaria – From – suppressed malaria- elat. 
  • FEVER – Intermittent fever- acon. Alst. am-m. Am-pic. Aml-ns. ant-c. ant-t. Apis Aran. arn. ars-br. Ars. aza. baj. bapt. bell. bol-la. bry. cact. Camph-mbr. canch. Caps. carb-ac. Carb-v. cean. Cedr. cent. Chin. Chinin-ar. Chinin-m. Chinin-s. chion. cimx. Cina Corn-f. crot-h. Echi. elat. eucal. Eup-per. Eup-pur. ferr-p. ferr. Gels. Helia. hep. hydr. Ign. Ip. kali-n. Lach. laur. lyc. maland. Meny. methyl. Nat-m. nat-s. Nux-v. op. ost. pambt. parth. petros. Ph-ac. phel. podo. polyp-p. puls. rhus-t. sabad. spig. sulph. tarax. Tela thuj. urt-u. verat-v. Verat. verb.
  • NERVOUS SYSTEM – Neuralgia – Cause, type – Malaria- aran. Ars. Cedr. chin. Chinin-s. meny. nat-m. Nicc-s. stann. sulph.
  • GENERALITIES – Anaemia, chlorosis – From – malaria- alst. Ars. Nat-m. ost. rob.
  • Bones – PAIN, bones – malaria, in- eup-per.
  • Chills – COLD, body – typo-malarial, fever, in- Ham.
  • Chills – EXPOSURE, chills, after – malarial, influences- ARAN. carb-ac. cean. CEDR. Chin. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. Eucal. eup-per. Ferr. ip. Nat-m. Nat-s. Nux-v. PSOR. Sulph.
  • Chills – MALARIA, chills, after exposure to malarial influences- ARN. carb-ac. CEDR. CHIN. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. Eucal. EUP-PER. Ferr. ip. Nat-m. Nat-s. Nux-v. PSOR. Sulph.
  • Chills – THERMOMETER, degrees, temperature – decreased – typo-malarial fever, in- Ham.
  • Clinical – anemia, general – malaria, from- alst. Ars. Nat-m. ost. rob.
  • Clinical – circulation, blood – weakness, of – typhoid malarial fever- Ham. 
  • Clinical – Malaria, infection, ague- abies-n. acon. agar. alst-s. alst. Alum. am-c. am-m. Am-pic. anac. ang. ant-c. ant-o. ant-t. Apis aran. Arg-n. arist-cl. Arn. ars-br. Ars-i. ars-s-f. Ars. arum-t. asaf. asar. aur. aza. baj. bapt. bar-c. Bell. benz-ac. Bol-la. bol-lu. bov. Bry. bufo buth-a. cact. calad. calc-ar. Calc-p. calc-s. Calc. calli-h. camph-br. camph. canch. cann-s. canth. Caps. Carb-ac. carb-an. Carb-v. caust. cean. Cedr. cent. ceph. cham. chel. chelo. chin-b. Chin. Chinin-ar. Chinin-m. Chinin-s. chion. cic. cimx. Cina cist. clem. coc-c. cocc. coff. colch. coloc. Corn-f. corn. croc. crot-h. cupr. cycl. dros. Echi. elat. Eucal. euon-a. eup-per. Eup-pur. euphr. ferr-ar. Ferr-i. ferr-p. Ferr. fl-ac. gels. gent-l. gent-q. graph. guare. Helia. hell. Hep. hydr. hyos. Ign. ilx-a. Iod. Ip. Iris kali-ar. kali-bi. kali-c. kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. Kali-s. lac-d. Lach. laur. led. lept. lil-t. lob. Lyc. lyss. mag-c. mag-m. mag-p. maland. malar. meny. merc. methyl. mosch. mur-ac. naja nat-c. Nat-m. nat-p. Nat-s. nicc. Nit-ac. nux-m. Nux-v. ol-j. op. ost. par. Petr. ph-ac. phel. Phos. phyt. plan. plb. podo. polyg-a. polyp-p. Pop. prun-cs. Psor. ptel. puls. Pyrog. querc. ran-b. ran-s. rheum rhod. Rhus-t. Sabad. sabin. samb. sang. sec. sed-ac. sel. senec. Sep. Sil. Spig. spong. stann. Staph. stram. sul-ac. Sulph. tarax. Tarent. Tela tell. Ter. teucr. ther. Thuj. Tub. urt-u. valer. verat-v. verat. verb. verbe-h. vip. zinc.
  • Clinical – Malaria, infection, ague – chills, after exposure to malarial influences- Arn. carb-ac. Cedr. Chin. chinin-ar. Chinin-s. Eucal. Eup-per. Ferr. ip. Nat-m. Nat-s. Nux-v. Psor. Sulph.
  • Clinical – Malaria, infection, ague – chronic, malaria- abies-n. agar. alum. am-m. apis aran. ars-br. Ars-i. ars-s-f. Ars. calc-ar. Calc-p. calc-s. Calc. canch. Carb-ac. Carb-v. Chin. Chinin-ar. corn-f. corn. eucal. ferr-ar. Ferr-i. Ferr. graph. Helia. Hep. ign. Iod. ip. kali-ar. kali-c. Kali-s. lach. Lyc. Nat-m. Nat-s. Nit-ac. nux-v. Phos. polyp-p. Psor. Puls. Pyrog. querc. Sep. Sil. Sulph. Tarent. tela Tub.
  • Clinical – Malaria, infection, ague – malarial- Arn. Chin.
  • Clinical – Nephritis, infection, kidneys – malaria, from- eup-per. ter.
  • Clinical – veins, general – distended – malaria, in- Lycps-v.
  • Ears – DISCHARGES, from ears – malaria, after- carb-v.
  • Ears – PAIN, ears – malaria, after suppression, of- Puls.
  • Female – ATONY, uterus, inertia uteri – metrorrhagia, in – malarial, in- chin.
  • Female – BLEEDING, uterus, metrorrhagia – atony, from uterine – malarial- chin. 
  • Fevers – INTERMITTENT, fever, ague, malaria- abies-n. acon. agar. alst-s. alst. ALUM. am-c. am-m. Am-pic. anac. ang. ant-c. ant-o. ant-t. Apis aran. arg-n. arist-cl. arn. ars-br. Ars-i. ars-s-f. ARS. arum-t. asaf. asar. aur. aza. baj. bapt. bar-c. BELL. benz-ac. Bol-la. bol-lu. bov. Bry. bufo buth-a. cact. calad. calc-ar. Calc-p. calc-s. CALC. calli-h. camph-br. camph. canch. cann-s. canth. Caps. Carb-ac. carb-an. Carb-v. caust. cean. Cedr. cent. ceph. cham. chel. chelo. chin-b. Chin. Chinin-ar. Chinin-m. chinin-s. chion. cic. cimx. Cina cist. clem. coc-c. cocc. coff. colch. coloc. Corn-f. corn. croc. crot-h. cupr. cycl. dros. Echi. elat. Eucal. euon-a. eup-per. Eup-pur. euphr. ferr-ar. Ferr-i. ferr-p. FERR. fl-ac. gels. gent-l. gent-q. graph. guare. Helia. hell. Hep. hydr. hyos. Ign. ilx-a. Iod. Ip. Iris kali-ar. kali-bi. kali-c. kali-i. kali-m. kali-n. kali-p. KALI-S. lac-d. Lach. laur. led. lept. lil-t. lob. LYC. lyss. mag-c. mag-m. mag-p. maland. malar. meny. merc. methyl. mosch. mur-ac. naja nat-c. NAT-M. nat-p. NAT-S. nicc. NIT-AC. nux-m. Nux-v. ol-j. op. ost. par. Petr. ph-ac. phel. Phos. phyt. plan. plb. podo. polyg-a. polyp-p. Pop. prun-cs. PSOR. ptel. puls. PYROG. querc. ran-b. ran-s. rheum rhod. Rhus-t. Sabad. sabin. samb. sang. sec. sed-ac. sel. senec. SEP. Sil. Spig. spong. stann. Staph. stram. sul-ac. SULPH. tarax. TARENT. Tela tell. teucr. ther. Thuj. TUB. urt-u. valer. verat-v. verat. verb. verbe-h. vip. zinc.
  • Fevers – INTERMITTENT, fever, ague, malaria – malarial- ARN. CHIN.
  • Fevers – REMITTENT, fever – bilious, low – malarial, gastric intestinal irritation, and- eup-per.
  • Fevers – REMITTENT, fever – infantile – due to irritation of teething, intestinal troubles, worms or malarial influences- Gels.
  • Fevers – REMITTENT, fever – malarial- eucal. eup-per. gels.
  • Fevers – THERMOMETER, degrees, temperature – decreased – typo-malarial fever, in- Ham.
  • Fevers – TYPHOID, fever, salmonella – blood, reduced by loss of, or malarious poison- CHIN.
  • Fevers – TYPHOID, fever, salmonella – malarial- Ham. Lycps-v.
  • Fevers – TYPHO-MALARIAL, fever- lycps-v.
  • Food – APPETITE, general – ravenous, appetite, canine – malaria, after suppressed- Eup-per.
  • Generals – COLD, body – typo-malarial, fever, in- Ham.
  • Headaches – MALARIA, in- Ars. caps. cedr. chin. Chinin-s. cupr-act. Eup-per. gels. Nat-m.
  • Hips – bruised pain, beaten, as if – fever, in typho-malarial, twentieth day- Laur.
  • Kidneys – INFLAMMATION, kidneys – malaria, from- Ars. chin. eup-per. ter.
  • Kidneys – NEPHRITIS, infection – malaria, from- eup-per. ter.
  • Liver – BILIOUS, liver – fever, bilious – derangement partaking of malarial character- eup-per.
  • Liver – ENLARGED, liver – malarial- merc-i-r.
  • Liver – JAUNDICE, icterus – malarial, symptoms, with- Nat-s.
  • Liver – WEAK, liver – malarious, districts, in- Chion.
  • Pulse – WEAK, pulse – fever, during, – typho-malaria, in, 140, from twentieth day- Ham.
  • Skin – URTICARIA, hives – malaria, from suppressed- elat.
  • Spleen – ENLARGED, spleen – malaria, after- cean. chin.
  • Clinical – Malaria developing- chinin-ar. 

Top ten antimalarial remedies
eup-per. >nat-m. >chin. >ars.> chinin-s. >cedr. >gels.  >sulph. >eucal. >hell

Bibliography

  1. Plasmodium vivax: paroxysm-associated lipids mediate leukocyte aggregation- Nadira Karunaweera1, Deepani Wanasekara1, Vishvanath Chandrasekharan2, Kamini Mendis1  and Richard Carter3.
  2. Malaria Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo,, P.O. Box 271, Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka.
  3. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  4. Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
  5. Malaria Journal 2007, 6:62doi:10.1186/1475-2875-6-62.
  6. Synthesis repertory v. 9.2

Dr Rajneesh Kumar Sharma, MD (Homoeopathy)
Dr (Km) Ruchi Rajput, BHMS
Homoeo Cure Research Centre P. Ltd.,
NH 74- Moradabad Road, Kashipur (UTTARANCHAL) – INDIA

Comments

One Response so far.

  1. Thirumeny says:

    Good Work Useful for many

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