Investigation of Cytokine Expression in Human Leukocyte Cultures with Two Immune-Modulatory Homeopathic Preparations
CHEPPAIL RAMACHANDRAN, Ph.D., M.B.A.,1,2 P.K. RAVEENDRAN NAIR, Ph.D.1, RICHARD T. CLÈMENT, M.D.,3 and STEVEN J. MELNICK, Ph.D., M.D.2
Background: The efficacy of homeopathic medicines for maintaining human health and treating disease has been extensively examined in clinical trials. However, there is a paucity of preclinical evaluations of the effects of homeopathic medicinal preparations on cellular signaling pathways relevant to the applications of these preparations.
Materials and methods: In this study, the immune-modulatory effects of Phase 6 (for the stimulation of the nonspecific defense system) and Flu Terminator® (for influenza and viral diseases) (Be Well Homeopathics Inc. Miami, FL), two homeopathic preparations developed for the purpose, were evaluated in normal human leukocyte cultures in vitro.
Results: Both Phase 6 and Flu Terminator stimulated the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by human leukocytes, although higher doses often produced a weaker response than lower doses. The carrier solvent (20% ethanol) failed to elicit any cytokine synthesis.
Conclusions: The results of the in vitro studies suggested that ultralow concentrations of ingredients in Phase 6 and Flu Terminator were capable of eliciting a human immune response.
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