Ferrum or Iron is most abundant element on the earth after oxygen, silicon and aluminium. It is supposed that human beings started to work on meteorite iron earlier than with other metals. Iron ores not found in the pure form but in the compounds form mainly iron oxide.
The word Ferrum coming from Latin means, “insensitive tough, hard, inflexible, heavy”.
In the periodic table Iron is described as transition metal
- Symbol – Fe
- Group – Eight
- Series – 4 (ferrum Series)
- Atomic no – 26
- Atomic wt – 56 amu.
1) It is used for the manufacture of tools, weapons, machines, vehicles, furnitures, nails screws etc.
2) It has been combined with all sorts of elements to form alloys, steel, which are of different varieties and grades.
Ferrum is one of the prominent constituents of animal body, being present in considerable quantity in blood and hence iron has great importance in human nutrition.
Iron is component of haemoglobin , myoglobin, cytochromes, catalase, peroxidase and certain other enzyme system. As a part of these haeme complexes and enzymes the function of iron in the body is O2 transport and cellular respiration. Iron deficiency also impair immune response.
The body of an adult human contain 3-4 gm (4.2 gm) of Fe and 75% of this found in blood. Small part found in myoglobin.
Fe is considered as a trace element and daily requirement.
- Adult man – 10 mg/day
- Woman – 18 mg/day
- Children – 20-25 mg/day
- Pregnancy – 40 mg/day
Sources of Iron
Animal sources are not only important sources of readily available iron but they also increase the absorbability of iron in plant food at the same time iron from animal foods is absorbed well than that from vegetable sources.
Eg : Liver, Kidney, meat, fish and eggs. Milk is a poor source of iron.
Plant sources are good source of iron but availability of iron from plant source is low due to presence of phytates and oxalates which interfere with iron absorption.
Eg : green leafy vegetable, cereals ,pulses, onions, grapes, nuts, oil seeds, jaggery etc.
Absorption of iron takes place in the duodenum and upper SI. Animal protein and Vit C enhance Fe absorption while phytates and oxalates retard it.
Hypochromic microcytic anaemia most commonly occurs in growing children, ,menstruating and pregnant woman. Those who suffer from parasitic diseases such as hook worm and malaria.
Ferrum group of Medicine in Homoeopathy (Boericke)
- Ferrum met
- Ferrum phos
- Ferrum picricum
- Ferrum lodatum
- Ferrum magneticum
Rare and uncommon
- Ferrum aceticum
- Ferrum arsenicum
- Ferrum bromatum
- Ferrum citricum
- Ferrum cyanatum
- Ferrum muriaticum
- Ferrum permetricum
- Ferrum protoxalatum
- Ferrum pyrophos
- Ferrum sulph
- Ferrum tartaricum
DOCTRING OF SIGNATURE
1.Iron is the strongest and stable metal. As it is stronger and stable the ferrum personalities are solid, stable resolute and firmly fixed in faith.
2.Iron when heated becomes red hot. Ferum personalities. Can’t bear contradiction (<opposition).
3.At a very high temperature, iron changes its physical form. In the same way ferrum shows a peculiar character of changeability.
4.Iron has the tendency of getting corroded (rust) In the same way they show deficiency of iron in their system leading to anaemia.
CENTRES OF ACTION (W. Burt)
Blood – Iron has a specific action upon the blood, producing a decrease of the albumin and an increase of water in the serum at the same time diminishing RBC.
Temperature – Raise the temperature both in health and disease.
Spleen – Atrophy and loss of function
Digestive organs – Irritation of mucus membrane.
Teeth – destruction of enamel
Kidney – fathy degeneration and albuminria.
Elimination – through mucus membrane
Characteristic Features of Ferrum Group
Suited to weak, anaemic persons with irregular distribution of blood and great pallor of lips and mucus membrane.
Anaemia under the mask of plethora and congestion Sanguine temperament,
Grauvogl’s oxygenoid constitution
Psora and tubercular miasm.
All Ferrum are
a. Solid, stable, resolute, sturdy and determined
They believe in reality and are very firmly supported Ferrum shows quality of being firm in purpose or action.
b. All ferrum shows perseverance and persistence
c. Irritability – All ferrum shows irritability which leads to exertion and anger, which arouses their fighting spirit but soon after they become fearful and exhausted draw away from any kind of conflict. Irritable, and easily annoyed.
d. They can’t tolerate any kind of opposition, resistance or obstacle < by any obstacle in their way which leads to depletion and prostration.
e. Ambitious – Having their own ambitions and desires, shows eager desire to succeed to achieve power, wealth and fame. If not achieved it leads to weakness and exhaustion.
g. Require some kind of support for their firmness and strength. Always want sympathy. Have nostalgic character.
h. Moral:- have good conduct, good morals and are stubborn in their course of action.
Shows hardness and strength : remain streadfast and resolute. Shows little mercy and very strong in giving hard judgements.
i. They are very strict, shrewed, obstinate and practical
j. Ferrum people will never bend or break, though they will gradually rust away becoming anaemic and emaciated.
k. Ferrum personalities have often been beaten is their childhood. This had made them very weary, they are constantly on their guard.
3. Characteristic Physical symptoms
1.Easily bleeding tendency /haemorrhagic diathesis
Bleeding general – Ferrmet, Ferrars, Ferriod ,Ferrum mur, Ferrphos.
Blood Does not coagulate – Ferr met, Ferrum mur, Ferr phos.
2. Anaemic and chloritic condition , chlorosis and secondaring anaemia due to bleeding tendencies.
3. Marked congestion and relaxation of tissues.
Excitability of circulation is irregular . There is a change between irritability in circulation and weakness. There exists a tendency of blood to rush from which the face changes from pallor to fiery red. FALSE PLETHORA
4.All type of menstrual irregularity
5.Most of the ferrums are right sided.
6.Weakness & Restleness.
Weakness even from talking, prostration with irregular and rapid pulse. Exertion tires and fatigues when keeping still, must keep limbs moving.
7.Restless sleep from frightful, unpleasant and anxious dreams
Ferrmet – Anxious tossing of nemerus dreams
Ferr iod – Dreams of thieves and fighting with them.
Ferr phos – Dreams of quarelling.
8.Thermal reaction – Predominently chilly
Ferrmet and Ferr ars – Chilly
Ferr iod – hot
9.Edema of both internal and External
10. Hyperpyrexia of various types
Ferr phos – All catarrhal and inflammatory fevers – Ist stage
Ferrars – continued fever with enlarged spleen.
Ferr met – fever with shivering of short duration. Shivering in the evening or night with violent thirst. Chill with thirst and red hot face. Dry heat which throw off all the covering and followed by perspiration.
11.All ferrum show marked action on digestion
Which is weak and exhausted to drugs and food particles cold and allergens.
12.Vomiting after eating and drinking and vomiting of pregnancy.
13. Specific action over the liver and spleen, causes their enlargement
Spleen enlarged – Ferrars, ferriod, ferrmet, ferr mur, Ferr phos Ferr acet.
Liver enlarged – Ferrars , ferriod, ferr met, Ferr phos
14.Aversion to meat and aggravation from meat
But desire for meat – Ferr met and ferr mur.
15. Rheumatic complaints
Rheumation of shoulder especially right.
16.Pain – Rheumatic, stitching and tearing pains
17. General < From Rest, Rapid movement , night by opposition.
> gentle movement, warm food.
18. General paralytic weakness with difficulty of movement and relaxation of the muscle.
19.Profuse cold perspiration from slightest exertion and perspiration aggravate the general weakness.
Ferrum wants everything in moderate quantity (hence they are called Mr. Moderator)
Moderate weather, food and movements
Characteristic features of Individual drugs
- Mind – Irritable, slight noises are unbearable, over sensitiveness. Excited from slightest opposition.
- Head ache in the back of head with rearing (throbbing) in the neck.
- Vertigo on seeing flowing water
- Face fiery red and flushed from least pain, and motion or exertion, Red part becomes bloodless, white and puffy. false plethora
- Pain in teeth, relieved by icy cold water.
- Voracious appetite or absolute loss of appetite. Spits up food by the mouthful. Vomiting immediately after eating. Vomiting after mednight. Intolerance of eggs. Vomiting as soon as food is eaten, leaves table suddenly and with one effort vomits everything eaten, can set down and eat again.
- Diarrhoea, painless, undigested at night after eating and drinking with good appetite.
- Menses – too early, prefuse, long lasting with ferry red face, flow pale, watery and debiting.
- Cough only in the day time (Euphs) > by lying down > by eating ( spong)
- Anaemic murmer. Pulse full, soft and yielding also small and weak. Heart contracts suddenly filling the blood vessels and then suddenly draws a reflux resulting in pallor.
- Rheumatism of shoulder, Lumbago better by walking slowly.
- Fever General coldness of extremities. Chill at 4 am.
- Modalities < setting sweating after cold washing and over heating midnight.
> Walking slowly after rising.
Remedy for the first stage of all febrile disturbances and inflammations before exudations sets in especially for catarrhal affections of the respiratory tract.
Clinical- Bronchitis in young children. In acute exacerbation of TB, a fine palliative with wonderful result.
Head-Sore to touch cold, noise and far. Ill effects of sun (sunstroke) Headache better by cold applications.
- First stage of otitis, cold, tonsillitis, peritonitis, dysentery, chest conditions, of cardiac diseases.
- Vomiting of undigested food, haematemesis, sour cructationes
- Diurnal enuresis
- Menses every 3 weeks with bearing down and pain on the top of head.
- Chest- Ist stage of any inflammatory condition. Expectoration of pure blood in pneumonia.
- Heart Ist stage of cardiac disease. Pulse, quick short and soft.
- Articular rheumation. Rheumatic pain in shoulder pain extends to chest and wrist.
- Sleep Restless and sleepless. Anxious dreams. Night sweats of anaemia.
- Fever catarrhal and inflammatory fevers, first stage chill daily at 1 pm.
Great remedy to complete the action of other medicines.
- Failure of the function of an organ under exertion Eg : the voice fails after public speaking.
- Acts best in dark haired patients plethoric with sensitive livers.
- Warts and epithelial growth, corns with yellowish discolouration.
- Senile hypertrophy of prostrate. Frequent micturiction at night with a full feeling and pressure in the rectum. Smarting at the neck of bladder& penis (barosma crenulatum).
- Epistaxis, chronic deafness and tinnitus due to gout
- Pseudo leukaemia.
- Scrofulous affections, glandular enlargements and tumours call for his remedy.
- A/C nephirtis after eruptive disease. Impertigo, boils
- Urine dark, sweet, smelling (diabetes). Crawling sensation in the urethra& rectum.
- Uterine displacements. On sitting as if something was pressed upwards in the vagina.
- Exophthalmic goiter from suppression of menses
- Small wa
- Wrts on hands.
- Pain in nape of neck, paralytic weaknessà Abdomen movements, grumbling in the abdomen. Loose evacuation with much flalutulence, esp on left side with pulling pain in legs. Abundant and frequent emission of foetid flatus.
- Clinical – P. Anaemia, chlorosis, Bright’s disease
- Enlargement of spleen and liver
- Enlarged spleen with high fever (Ferr iod, if no fever)
- Sticky, excoriating leucorrhoea, uterus heavy and prolapsed, scalp feels numb.
- Basedow’s disease , Erethism
- Acidity, eructation of food in mouthful
- Watery and painless stools.
- Pain in gall bladder
- Menorrhagia ,pressing , throbbing between periods with rush of blood to head.