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Date posted: October 22, 2011

Prof.Sunil Raj R
Govt. Homeopathic Medical College. Trivandrum.

1.First homoeopathic pharmacopoeia – Dr. Carl.W. Caspari, Leipzig, Germany in 1825
2.Pharmacopoeia published by Von Willmer Schwabe – 1872 “Pharmacopoeia Homoeopathic Polyglotica”
3.First homoeopathic pharmacopoeia in India – by M. Bhattacharya &Co. of Culcutta in 1893 called “Pharmaceutics manual”.     Revised edition in 1902 and is called “M. Bhattacharya & Co. Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia”
4.Official pharmacopoeia of India -HPI – in 1971 published by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Govt. already published 180 monographs and 1st – VI th volumes in 1990.
5.Chairman of “Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee ” in 1962 – Dr. B.K.Sarkar.

6.Official Pharmacy = Preparation of drugs according to the process which are prescribed in an official pharmacopoeia.
7.Extemporanous pharmacy = Preparation and distribution of medicines according to the prescription of a Physician.
8.Combining = is the process of joining 2 or more things together – the product is a mechanical mixture.
9.Compounding = the process of uniting 2 or more elements or constituents together so as to form an altogether new product which have new properties different from those of its constituents eg. CaS (HeparSulph)
10.’Preparation of Medicines – Where whole plant is used Aconite, Arnica,Belladonna, Chamomilla, Conium, Drosera, Dulcamara, Hyocyamus, Hypericum,Ledum, Millifolium, Pulsatilla, Ran-bulbosus, Ruta, Spigelia, Stramonium.
11. Preparation of Medicines- where only FRESH ROOT is used: – Arum tryphillum,Bryonia, Cicuta, Phytolacca,
12. Where only DRIED ROOT is used:- Calotropis, Ipecac, Raouwalfia,
13. Where HANGING AERIAL ROOTS are used:- Ficus indica
14. Preparation of medicines- only STEM is used:- Cactus grandiflorus
15. Where RHIZOME is used:- Cimicifuga, Gelsemium, Helleborus, Hydrangia, Podophyllum, Rumex, Sanguinaria, Veratrum alb.
16. Tubers– Solanum tuberosum,
17. Conns:- Colchicum autumnale. Crocus sativa
18. Bulb:- Allium cepa., Allium sativa
19. Where FRESH LEAVES only:- Aegle folia, Digitalis, Ficus religiosa, Justicia adhatoda, Kalmia, Rhustox,
20. Where DRIED LEAVES are used:- Coca, Tabaccum, Eucalyptus
21. Where FLOWERS or FLOWERING HEADS with or without leaves are used :-Calendula, Eupatorium perf, Cina,
22. Where DRIED STIGMA of FLOWER is used:- Crocus sativus
23. Where BERRIES are used:- Agnus castus, sabal serrulata
24. Where NUTS are used:- Aesculus hippocastanum
25. Where FRESH SEEDS are used:- Ignatia, Syzygium
26. Where DRIED SEEDS are used:- Cocculus, Lathyrus, Nux moschata, Nux vomica, Sabadilla, Staphysagria
27. Where BARK is used:— Abies Canadensis, Cinchona (dried outer bark), Mezerium, Cinnamon (inner bark)
28. Where BARK OF ROOT is used:- Baptisia, Berber-is, Hammamelis
29.Where JUICE is used:— Aloe soc (juice of leaves),, Anacardium occidentalis (juice of shell),, Anacardium orientale (juice of seed),. Opium (gummy juice of poppy)
30. Examples of medicines from RESINS: Abies nigra, Asafoetida
31. Eg. Of medicines from GUMRESINS: Asafoetida, Benzoinum
32. eg. Of medicines from OLEORESINS : Rhustox, Turpentine
33. Eg. Of medicines from BALSAMS : Balsamum peruvianum, Balsamumtolutanum
34. Eg. Of fixed oils: 1) Ricinus oil, 2). Coconut oil. 3). Olive oil
35. Eg. Of Volatile oils: 1) Eucalyptus 2). Cinnamomum, 3). Lavender 4). Santali 5). Terebinth
36. Eg. Of medicines prepared from Algae :- Ficus vesiculosus
37. Eg. Of medicines prepared from Fungi:— Agaricus, Bovista, Secale cor, Ustilago
38. Eg. Of medicines prepared from Lichens:- Sticta pulmonale (36-37 are Thallophytes)
39. Eg. Of medicines prepared from Bryophyta:- Polytrichumjuniperinum
40. Eg. Of medicines prepared from Pteriophyta :- Lycopodium, Filix mas, Equisetum

41 Name of alkaloids present in:— 

  • Belladonna : Atropine, Hyoscyamine
  • Nux vom : Strychnine, Brucine
  • Cinchona: Quinidine, Quinine, Cinchonine
  • Ipecac:- Emetine
  • Secale cor :- Ergotine
  • Opium :- Codeine, Morphine,

42. Resinoids:-

  • Apocyanum cannabinum :- Apocyanin
  • Baptisia tinctoria;- Baptisin
  • Iris versicolor :- Irisin
  • Cimicifuga 

43. Glycosides:

  • Adonis vemalis: Adonidin
  • Aloe socotrina :Aloin
  • Digitalis : Digitalin

44. Eg. Of medicines prepared FROM WHOLE ORGANISM:

  • Apis mellifica (in case where only poison is used ; Apium virus)
  • Culex muscus – Culex mosquito
  • Formica rufa – Ants
  • Pediculus capitis – head lice
  • Latrodectus mactans – Black widow spider (poison only also is used)
  • Tarentula cubensis
  • Tarentula hispanis
  • Theridion curassavicum
  • Sanguisuga officinalis – leech
  • Helix tosta – Snail
  • Asterias rubens- star fish

44. Eg of medicines prepared from WHOLE DRIED ORGANISM:

  • Blatta orientalis – Indian cockroach, Cantharis – Spanish fly

45 Ova tosta is prepared from Toasted egg shell of hen (syn. Calcarea ovorum)
46 Ovi gallinae pellicula —from membrane of egg shell
47. Carbo animalis — Animal charcoal —from Hide of Ox or Cow
48. Orchitinum -from testicular extract of men
49. Oophorinum -from Ovarian extract of cow or sheep
50. Mephitis mephitica — from fluid secretion of the anal gland of wild cat
51. Moschus moschiferus – Dried secretion of perpetual follicles of male musk- deer (East Asia)
52. Castoreum -from the extract of perpetual sacs of the Beaver
53. Fel tauri — from fresh gall of Ox
54. Serum anguillar ichthotoxin — from Eel serum (Pisces)
55. Ophiotoxins — Snake venom
56. Crotalus horridus – Rattle snake (North America)
57. Elaps corallinus – Coral snake
58. Lachesis tngonocephalus – Suruku-ku snake (South America)
59. Eg. For Lizard poison – Amphisbaena vermicularis
60. Eg. For Scorpion poison – Centruroides elegans
61. Eg. For Insect poison — Apium virus (poison of honey bee)
62. Poison of toad (Amphibia) — Bufo rana
63  Koumyss — fermentation from Ass’s milk
64. Eg. For organic compound — Amyi nitrosum
65. Eg. For minerals — Anthrakokali, Graphites, Hekla-lava, Silicea
66. Medicine prepared from mineral spring water:
Sanicula , Aqua sanicula, Lapis alba, Wiesbaden, Skookum chuck
67. Coqveluchinum – Pertussin – Nosode of Whooping cough
68. Pestinum – Plaguinum – Nosode of Plague
69. Scirrhinum – Nosode of Scirrhous cancer
70. Syphillinum – Leuticum – Nosode of syphilitic lesion
71. Anthracinum — Spleen of sheep or cattle affected by anthrax
72. Hydrophobinum – Lyssin
73. Malandrinum — Grease of horse
74. Pyrogenium — from decomposed lean beef
75. Ambra grisea — Morbid product from the belly of the sperm-whale, Physeter macrosephalous
76. Nectrianinum —Nosode of cancer of trees
77. Malaria officinalis — Decaying vegetation activated by Malarial parasite
78. Egs. for Bowel nosodes:— Dysentery 30, Dysentery, Co (bach), Morgan gaertner, Typhoidinum
79. Magnetis poli ambo – The whole magnet, both poles are used
80. Magnetis polus arcticus — North pole
81. Magnetis polus australis — South pole
82 Magnetis artificialis — Artificial magnet
83 Eg For synthetic source of drugs — Chloramphenicol
84 Desiccator :—used for desiccation, to remove moisture completely from substances and also to keep hygroscopic materials ie that materials which absorb moisture from the atmosphere
85.Decantation – The process of slowly and correctly pouring liquid from one vessel to another

86. Types of Chromatography procedure:
1) Paper chromatography
2) Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
3) Column chromatography
4) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

87 Different methods of Drug standardization
1). Organoleptic evaluation (by using senses)
2). Microscopic evaluation
3)  Physical evaluation
4). Chemical evaluation
5). Biological evaluation

88. Chemical formula of Sac lac =  C12H22O11
  Stapfs process of purification of saccharum lactose (John Ernst Stapf)

STEPS

  • 450gm. SL +2 liters of boiling water
  • Filter using filter paper
  • Filtrate+ 2 liters of absolute alcohol
  • Keep for 3-4 days
  • Crystals deposits
  • Add some alcohol to crystallized mass and wash in purified water
  • Crystals are diluted by pouring through filter paper and kept airtight

90. Properties of SL (Solubility)
- Insoluble in alcohol
1 gm. SL is soluble in 5 ml. of ordinary water
1 gm SL is soluble in 2.6 ml. of boiling water
91. Molecular wt. Of SL = 360.3
92. Synonyms of placebo = Nihilhininum , Phytum, Rubrum, Lactopen
93. Globules =  Soluble in water. Insoluble in alcohol
94. Pillules = larger globules 40,60,70
95. Pellets = Smaller globules
96. Cones = For preparation, vegetable and animal kingdom substances are used.
Cane sugar with egg albumin. -Usual shape is conical or semi globular. Size is determined by measuring diameter of base in mm. -Commonly used size is no. 6
97. Tablets == Sugar of milk or the raw material -Soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol and are softer than globules

98. Types of Alcohol
1.Absolute alcohol: Theoretically 100%pure, practically 99.5%by vol.
Sp. gravity = 0 792 Uses:==Stapfs process for the purification of sugar of milk, preparation or mere sol,
2.Strong alcohol: 95% by vol. Sp gravity 0.816 Synonyms= Alcohol Fortier. Alcohol fortes Uses: preparation of mother tinctures, preparation of other alcohols
3.Dilute alcohol: 62.5%by vol. Sp. Gravity =0.89, Uses: Preparation of potencies, esp. for decimal scale ; 1st step from tinctures. For cleaning of utensils
4.Dispensing alcohol: 88%by vol. Sp.gravity =0.84 Syn. Alcohol officianalis, Official alcohol. Uses: Preparation of potencies from Mother tinctures, for dispensing
5.Rectified spirit: 91.29%by vol, sp.gravity 0.812 Uses: Potentisation of medicines. Dispensing purpose
99.Proof spirit: By Act of Parliament, it is a mixture of alcohol and purified water weighing 12/13’1′ of an equal wt. Of purified water at 51° F

100.Sp.gravity of glycerin = 1.26
100.Spermaceti = Waxy substance obtained from the head of the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus
101.Prepared Lard (lard) = It is the purified internal fat of the abdomen of the pig; Used as an ingredient in the preparation of ointments
102.Isinglass = It is the collagen derived from the thin, inner layer of the air bladder of some fishes .Used in medicated plasters
103.Lanolin = (Wool fat) Adeps lanae = It is the purified anhydrous fat -like  substance (grease) obtained from the wool (curly hair) of the sheep, ovis aries
104. Poppy-seed sized globules =100 of which weighs 1 grain (65 mg)
105. Drug strength of mother tincture of 50 millesimal scale = 1 /5x 10 8
106. Drug strength of 1st potency of 50 millesimal scale = l/5xl0 10
107. In the trituration of mercury compounds, sac lac is not usually used; because sac lac has got aldehyde properties and due to this, reduce the mercury compounds during trituration. In such cases, camphor which has got less aldehyde properties are used.

108. Fincke’s fluxion method of potentisation : 100 drops of 1st potency is kept in a tumbler and water is allowed to fall into the tumbler . each 5 ml or 1 grain that pour out from the tumbler is the next potency.
109.High fluxion method: to minimize labor,time, and alcohol machines are used. Here water is used to prepare the intermediate potencies.

110.Glycerol: Medicine= glycerin preparation ratio: 1:9 ; but HPI ratio is 1:4 Eg. Mullein oil glycerol ear drops
111.Ointments (therapeutic creams) preparation 1:9 syn. Petroleum jelly, Vaseline, soft paraffin
112.Liniments = (Embrocations) Vehicle used is olive oil or tincture of soap ;ratio 1:9 or l :4 (HPI) tincture of soap is prepared by mixing soft soap, strong alcohol and purified water
113.Camphor is used as external application : to get local stimulating effect and also due to its characteristic smell to remove the stench of the infection
114.Opodeldos are semisolid liniments. They are prepared by mixing white curd soap, strong alcohol, purified water and mother tincture
115.Lotions are liquid suspensions or dispersions in aqueous media. Drug lotion 1:9; Eye lotions 1:99
116.Cerades are external applications prepared from spermaceti (Spans), white wax (2 parts) almond oil (16 parts)

117. Poultices or cataplasms Egs are Linseed meal poultice

  • Bread poultice
  • Charcoal poultice
  • Carrot poultice
  • They are used to reduce pain , provide heat or/ cold and moisture
  • Helps healing of abscess
  • Provide medicinal effect

118. Fomentations: they contain no medicines unlike poultices.. three types hot fomentations : flannel cloth provides heat and moisture
Dry fomentations: hot water bottle
Cold fomentations: ice bags

119.Preparation of Arnica hair oil: Dry roots of Arnica Montana are coarsely pulverized and converted into powder form. 10 parts of olive oil is added. Then it is kept in well stopped bottles for about 2 weeks in a warm room. Then the contents are expressed out and the oil is filtered

120. Different systems of weighing and measuring:
1.metric =universally accepted
2.imperial – British
3.Apothecary = USA
121. 1 pound =45359gm(approx,450gm)
1 fluid ounce = 28.412 ml (30 ml approx)
1 fluid drachms = 4-5 ml. ^ 100 ordinary drops = 60 minims =1 teaspoon
1ml = 16.893 minims ; 1 minim = 0.0592ml
standard drop is that when the fluid comes out of the delivery end whose external diameter is 3 mm
1 teaspoonful = 4-5 ml = 1 drachms
1 dessert spoonful = 2drachms
1 table spoonful = 15 ml == Vi ounce
2 table spoonful = 30 ml = 1 ounce

122. Abbreviations: directions to take medicines:

  • AC or ac = Ante cibum = before food
  • Pr.C = Pruis cibum = between food
  • Alt. Hor = Altemis Horis = Alternate hours
  • Alt. Noct = Alternate Nocte = alternate nights
  • BD /BID = Bis Indice = twice daily
  • Cito disp. = Cito dispensetu1″ = let it be dispensed quickly
  • Dieb.alt. = Diebus altemis = on alternate days
  • Ft = Fiat = let it be made
  • Gtt = gutta = drops
  • HD= Horis Deccubitus = At bed time
  • M = Misce = Mix
  • Mist = mistura = a mixture
  • Pulv. = pulveris = a powder
  • p.c = post cibum = after food
  • q.i d. = quarter in die = four times a day
  • Q.S = quantum sufficit = a sufficient quantity
  • S = sigma = mark
  • s o.s. = Si opus sit = if necessary
  • T.D /TID = ter in die = thrice daily
  • Q = mother tincture
  • Vac.ven = Vacuo Ventriculo = In an empty stomach

123. Parts of a prescription
1). Superscription
2) Inscription = medicines (this is the most imp. Part of the prescription)
3).Subscription = direction to the pharmacist
4).Signature = direction to the patient
124.Day book : It is the registry of drug proving where the provers record their symptoms in day by day basis

125. Drug proving unit: comprises of:
1). Project Director
2) A Pharmacological adviser
3) A panel of investigators
4). Provers

126. Various constituents in plant derivatives:
1). Alkaloids 2). Glycosides 3). Tannins 4). Resinoids 5). Anthraquinine derivatives 6).
Plant exudates 7). Proteins 8). Fatty acids 9). Oils 10) Vitamins

127.  Plant exudates are :
1) resins 2). Oleoresins 3). Gums 4). Gummy resins 5).Balsams
128.Alkaloid present in drugs like Belladonna , Stramonium and Hyoscyamus is Hyoscyamin
129.Hepar sulph belongs to calcium group (inorganic compound)
130-Causticum belongs to Kali group (Tinctura acris cine kali)
131.Graphites: syn. Plumbago, Black-lead , Carbo animalis
132-Merccor. :syn. Corrosive sublimatum
133.Merc. Dulcis :syn. Calomel

134 OLD CLASS OF MOTHER TINCTURE PREPARATION:

  • Class I: Most juicy substances; ratio 1:1; Drug strength is Vz eg Belladonna
  • Class II juicy substances : ratio 3:2 ; drug strength = Vi Eg Thuja
  • Class III: Less juicy substances : ratio 1:2 Drug strength =1/6 ; Eg Pulsatilla
  • Class IV : Dry plants / or parts ; ratio =1:5 ; drug strength 1/10: Eg. Nux vomica
  • Class V A In Aqueous solution ; ratio = 1:9 drug strength 1/10 Eg Sulphuric acid
  • Class VB ratio I 99, Drug strength 1/100, Eg Oxalic acid
  • Class VI A ratio =1:9 Eg. Camphora
  • Class VI B ratio 1:99 , Eg Sulphur
  • Class VI 1 Dry ratio 1 9 or 1:99 Eg Calc carb
  • Class VIII: Eg Lachesis, Naja, Lyssin, Malandrinuin, Petroleum, Buforana
  • Class IX: Ratio= 2:99 or2:9 Eg. Agaricus, Ana.orientale, Carcinocin,Antracinum,Medo(Thinum,,Psorinum,Syphillinum

135. Maceration: what kind of sub used?
hard gummy mucilaginous sub of veg and animal kingdom. And those having much viscid-juice and fats which do not allow alcohol to penetrate or permeate rapidly.
136.Time taken for tinct. For maceration: 2-4 weeks, jar being shaken powerfully once daily

137. PERCOLATION What kind of sub used
Soft, non gummy, and non-mucilaginous sub of veg and animal kingdom.
Percolators are made up of glass, copper, stainless steel, porcelain, or alloys
13 8.Time taken for collecting tincture from percolator: 24 hrs.
139. what is tow? How do you set it? What is the purpose of tow?
It is a sub made up of porous material placed in or above the neck and below the powdered dry sub It consists of layers from below upwards:
1. a plug of an absorbent cotton, inserted in the neck
2. a layer of about V* inch thick minimum coarse sand or coarsely powdered green glass
3. a layer of about ‘/2 inch thick medium coarse sand or finely powdered green glass.
4. a layer of maximum coarse sand or coarsely granulated glass.

PURPOSE: It controls the flow of liquid.
140. Menstrum: it is a liquid which is capable of penetrating the tissues of plants or animal sub. And capable of dissolving the active principles.
141. Mere: it is the inert fibrous insoluble material remaining after the expression of the juice from drug materials after maceration or percolation.
142. Magma: the thick residue of soft doughy mass resulting from the expression of fluid part of  sub.

143. ACTS AND RULES:

  • Drugs And Cosmetic Act 1940
  • Drugs And Cosmetic Rule 1945
  • Drugs And Magic Remedy Act 1954
  • Drugs and Magic Remedy Rule 1955
  • Medicinal And Toiletry Preparation Act 1955
  • Dangerous Drug Act 1930
  • Dangerous Drug Rules 1957
  • Drug Price Control Order 1970, 1971
  • Part VI A of drugs and cosmetic act controls the sales and exhibition of drugs
  • Part VII A of drug and cosmetic act controls the manufacture of drugs.
  • Part IX A of drug and cosmetic act: labeling and package.

VALIDITY PERIOD of drug license up to 31st Dec of the year in which the license is granted. {Irrespective of which is license is granted in jan July, any month}

  • Form 19B: Applications for the grant or renewal of license to sell, stock, exhibit for sale or distribution.
  • Form 20 C: license is provided by the licensing authority in this form for sale, stock, and exhibit.
  • Form 20 D: licensing for wholesale purposes.
  • Form 24 C: application for renewal or grant for manufacture of medicines
  • Form 25 C: license is provided for manufacture in this
  • Form 26 C: certificate for renewal will be given in form 26 C

LABEL AND PACKAGING: things to be noted are
1. label Horn. Med.
2. name of med, potency
3. name and address of the manufacture.
4. in case the med contains alcohol, % by vol or vol by weight of the alcoholic content.
5. manufacturing licensing no. Mfg. Lie or M.L

LABELING OF TINCTURES:. In addition to above should contain a distinctive batch or lot number. Batch No. or Lot No. or LOT or BATCH
PHARCONOMY: Route of administration.
PHARMACOPOLLAXY: Repetition of doses of med.
PHARMACOGNOSY: it is one of the branches of Pharmacology which deals with the characteristics of various sources of drugs which serve as a means of identification, like distribution, morphology, cellular structure, biochemistry etc.
PHARMACOPRAXY: It is the art and science which deals how crude drug sub are converted into real med.
PHARMACOLOGY: It is the science that deals with different aspects of the drugs especially the study of action of drugs in living subjects.
PHARMACODYNAMICS: The branch of pharmacology which helps to acquire the knowledge about the actions &effects of drugs on living systems especially in the dynamic level both in health & diseases (Interaction of the drug molecules in the body)
MONOGRAPH: It is the detailed record of the standard specifications for each drug or medicine recorded in the pharmacopoeia.
ELUTRIATION: Mixing of rough insoluble substances like chalk etc in water so that the finer light powdery portion of the substances may be poured off after the coarser particles have settled in the bottom. It is done sometimes merely to wash away such impurities as and, gravel etc.

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Comments

3 Responses so far.

  1. aditya gaydhani says:

    very good homeopathy pharmacy

  2. Dr Ramesh Gupta says:

    VERY PRODUCTIVE COLECTION

  3. Dr. Salman Rashid says:

    Very very explained good Pharmacy…….

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