Date posted: April 18, 2012

Dr T K  Jithesh

(Hahnemannian Method)
The tincture and potencies of these drugs are available with the authors till they get into the open market

Contact: Dr. T. K. Jithesh, “Ushass”, Paral (P.0), Madapeedika, Tellicherry -670 671. Kerala. India. Phone: 0490-344580.®
Dr.George Mathew, Kodambattu Parambil, Muriyanal, Kunnamangalam P.O. Kozhikode, Kerala. India.
Ph: 0495-201826 ®

Dr. Samuel Hahnemann. had paved the path to Homoeopathy through “Drug proving” way back in 1790. Our work is . humble effort to show the Homoeopathic fraternity the simplicity and feasibility of “Drug proving”.

As part of our M.D.course, the thesis topics we decided upon were the Hahnemannian Drug Proving and clinical verification of Sida alnifolia and Phyllanthus amarus. These two plants were being used very effectively in the indigenous system and had no studied toxicological effects. Phyllanthus amarus known as Kizharnelli in local language (Malayalam) is used as a very effective single drug therapy in hepatitis, whereas Sida alnifolia, known as Kurunthotti is extensively used in Ayurveda for various diseases, especially arthritis, diseases of women during pregnancy, etc.

The study was conducted at Kozhikode under the guidance of Dr. Esmail Sait, Principal and Professor of Materia medica, G.H.M.C, Kozhikode, in 40 provers after obtaining their written consent. Of these provers, 30% were treated as placebo i.e. 6 provers for each drug. The drugs were proved in the tincture, 30C and 200C potencies.

Before proving, each prover was subjected to case-taking, physical examination and laboratory investigations, to assess their state of health. The dosage for the tincture was one drop per kilogram body weight. Eg. 60 drops for 60 kg. weight. This was divided and administered as 4 doses daily. 30C and 200C were given as 4 medicated pills, 4 times daily and the frequency of administration increased, if there was no response. The period of proving for each potency was 2 weeks and the provers were advised to stop medication as soon as distressing symptoms appeared.

Daybooks maintained by the provers were elaborated by us every 2 days. After proving, each prover was again subjected to case-taking, physical examination and laboratory investigations to see if there were any changes.

The proving was conducted as a double blind cross-over randomized controlled trial, to make it most reliable and scientific. The provers were given code numbers initially, which were decoded only after the proving experiment. Cross-over method helped to conduct proving very effectively and in the shortest time possible. A prover who received placebo in the first phase was given 30C and 200C later, thus making the best use of the small study population.

Clinical verification was carried out after the construction of the final materia medica, in 30 acute cases each. Clinical study showed 80% success rate in various acute diseases. The action in chronic diseases should be studied and re-proving thereby to be conducted before these drugs can find their proper place in the therapeutic armamentarium of Homoeopathy.

We humbly request all Homoeopaths to use these medicines in their daily practice for various diseases if the symptomatology of the patient corresponds to that of these medicines. We also request each one of you to inform us your successes and failures after using these medicines, so that we can make this work a complete one and the Materia medica more reliable.

Proving these drugs has made our belief in Homoeopathy stronger and clearer. There are many endemic plants in Kerala used extensively by the indigenous system of medicine which have to be proved. Hope this  will be an inspiration to the sincere and enthusiastic Homoeopaths to take to the proving of more and more easily available drugs and thus contribute to the progress of Homoeopathy.

Introduction to Final Materia Medica
The final Materia medica of Sida alnifolia and Phyllanthus amarus have been formed after proving the drug in tincture, 30C and 200C, followed by clinical verification of these proved symptoms. The symptoms included in final Materia medica were selected based on certain criteria, which are given below in the order of importance. They are

  1. Those symptoms, which are verified during clinical verification.
  2. Those symptoms, which have been obtained commonly while proving all three potencies — Q, 30C and 200C.
  3. Those symptoms, which are very intense, and persists for several days during proving.
  4. Those symptoms, which were seen in majority of provers.
  5. Those symptoms which were peculiar, characteristic or striking even if seen in only very few provers.

All vague and incomplete symptoms have been omitted from the final Materia medica.
The potency (for e.g. Q, 30C and 200C) is given after each symptom, to show in which potency a particular symptom was produced. ‘Q’ is used to denote mother tincture. Symptoms obtained from empirical usage or clinical studies are denoted by (:). Various materia medicas (Hahnemann’s, Hering’s, Kent’s, Cowperthwite’s and Boericke’s Materia medica) have been consulted for preparing the final Material medica.

Sida Alnifolia
1.Sida retusa. Linn.
2.Sida rhombifolia. retusa (Linn). Mast.
3.Sida rhombifolia .sub sp restusa (Linn). Bross.

Vernacular Name: Kurunthotti
Names in other Indian languages
Kannada : cheruparuva
Tamil : Chiramutti
Thelugu : Crubenda
Sanskrit : Bala
Bengali : Pitabala
Hindi : Bhiunli

Names in foreign languages
Australia Queens land hemp
Africa Petoria-bossie
Srilanka : Chittamadi
Natural Order
(Family) : Malvaceae
Source : Whole plant

It is widely distributed all over the world. In India it is distributed chiefly in Bengal, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala. It occurs along roadsides, forest clearings as secondary growth and occasionally as a weed in upland cultivation.

Tincture is prepared from the dried, powdered whole plant according to class IV method.

Sphere of action:
Main spheres of action of this drug are, head, mouth, throat, stomach, rectum, male genitalia, female genitalia, back & extremities, sleep & dreams, fever and skin.

Empirical Uses:
Empirically this medicine is suited for emaciated debilitated individuals. It produces strength and imparts beauty to the body. This is used as a tonic to increase the vigour. It is an aphrodisiac, and promotes the sexual drive in sexually debilitated individuals. Persons who are prone to develop arthritis and rheumatism get great benefit from this drug. Suited for females with uterine disorders, leucorrhoea and rheumatic complaints. Its use after the 5 month of pregnancy strengthens the uterine muscles, promotes easy labour, and prevents abortion. It is useful in persons with insanity and weakness in the mental sphere. In the gastro-intestinal tract it is used in many conditions like abdominal colic, flatulence, irritable bowel syndrome, dysentery, diarrhoea and haemorrhoids.

Its use in polyuria and frequent micturition helps in the treatment of the conditions like diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus and urinary tract infections. It is useful for gonorrhoea, sexual weakness and spermatorrhoea. It has got splendid action in pulmonary tuberculosis, the debility and weakness due to it. It is useful in many heart troubles. Neurological disorders like hemiplegia, facial paralysis and sciatica comes under its sphere of action. It is used as a febrifuge, especially if fever accomp anied by shivering. It is used as an antidote to snake and scorpion poisoning. Has gol special action upon tumours, boils, swellings. wart, elephantiasis, wounds etc. It is usefu in all kinds of inflammations and generalizec burning sensation of body.

Clinical  Studies:
Clinical studies conducted with thc extract of the plant, points to its great therapeutic efficacy .in various aspects al of Houston, found out the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of this plant in 1984. Rao.K.S et al of Gujarat published the anti-hepatotoxic activity of Sida plant in 1998. Venkatesh. Set al of Ooty studied the anti-nociceptive and anti- inflammatory activity of this plant. Ogwal et al of Kampala, Uganda, states the usage of this plant during ante and post-natal periods in the prevention of miscarriage, induction of uterine contractions and expulsion of retained placenta in 1994. Apart from this various clinical studies show its usefulness in rheumatism, osteoarthritis and menstrual disorders.

Crowding of thoughts, unable to concentrate in anything (Q. 30C). Crowding of thoughts causes sleeplessness (Q). Brooding (Q). Irritable mood (Q, 30C), avoid talking or answering questions (30C). Sense of well being (Q, 30C). Mental alertness after 10 p.m. (Q). Dullness with unrefreshed feeling after waking (Q). Hypersensitive to external impressions, especially to noise (Q). Restlessness, no position in bed is comfortable (30C). Wearisome; fatigues after exerting the mind (Q). Wants to be alone (30C). Unusual mental calmness (200C). Insanity (:) Euphoria (:)

Vertigo while rising from bed (Q, 30C), “Sensation as if several bees are crowded in the head” (Q), with weakness of lower-limb especially knee (Q). Falling while rising with blurred vision (Q). Feeling as if he will fall towards the left side (Q, 30C), worse morning after waking, evening, turning the head, better after lying down, rest (Q, 30C).

Congestive headache of forehead and temples (Q, 30C, 200C), more on left side, with irritability, twitching of left upper eye lid (30C), worse evening (Q, 30C), fanning from close, moving the head (200C), better pressure (Q, 30C, 200C), rest (Q, 30C), pressing the supra orbital region (Q), after sleep (30C). Pain in both frontal eminence, worse evening (Q, 30C). Headache of both parietals (30C, 200C), associated with pressing the teeth together, shaking of lower- limbs, pain in calves, restlessness and lack of concentration (30C), worse while concentrating, better pressure (30C, 200C). Heaviness of head (Q, 30C, 200C), with dis comfort in epigastrium, coryza (Q), worse sun, evening, reading, better tight bandage, bathing after, pressing the supra orbital region, closing the eyes (Q, 30C, 200C). Sensation as if forehead is perspiring, as if hot vapour rising from middle of the forehead (Q). Pimples over forehead, tender to touch (30C). Hair falling (:).

Aching, congestive feeling in eyes and supra orbital region, worse noon, better pressure, after sleep (Q). Itching, burning and watering of eyes; started in the left eye during morning hours and it is shifted to the right eye in the evening (30 C). Twitching of left eyelid, worse: evening (30C). Ophthalmia (:)

Hypersensitive to noise (Q). Pain in left ear while empty swallowing, worse evening, after sleep (30C)

Coryza, thin watery nasal discharge (Q, 200C), or thick, yellowish green nasal discharge(Q,30C,200C). Nose stopped up, dryness of the nostrils causing obstruction, more on the right side (Q, 30C, 200C), worse during morning and evening (Q, 30C), lying down (200C). Pain in the root of the nose with tenderness to touch (30C, 200C). Yellowish discharge from posterior nares (Q,30C), worse lying down (30C). Sneezing with heat sensation in eyes (Q), many paroxysms (200C), worse after exposure to dry wind (200C).

Redness of face (Q). Dryness and constriction of lips, worse morning (Q, 30C, 200C). Profuse perspiration of face (Q). Painful pimples on right cheek (30C). Reddish, inflamed, protruded, oedematous lower lip (200C). Painful ulcer on the right side of the lower lip with intense burning, worse washing, slightest touch (200C). Facial paralysis (:).

Dryness and constricted feeling of mouth, worse morning (Q, 30C, 200C), with decreased salivation and intense thirst (Q, 30C). Bitter taste (Q) or metallic taste of saliva (30C). Aphthous ulcer, dark red, raised margins and yellowish base with inflamed oedematous area around it (200C), intense burning after washing or from slightest touch (200C). Desire to press the teeth together during headache (30C).

Sorethroat especially on left side with disposition to empty swallowing (Q, 30C. 200C). Pain extends to ears on swallowing (Q, 30C, 200C). Burning and soreness of the throat with feeling as if had taken black pepper (Q). Upper palate and uvula red and congested (Q). Tonsils red, enlarged and hypertrophied, left tonsil more enlarged (Q). Constant desire to clear the throat, which gives temporary relief (30C). Lump feeling in the throat, better: hawking (Q, 200C). Sensation of a dry spot in the throat with itching and causing coughing (30C, 200C). Sore throat worse morning, evening, exerting voice, better empty swallowing, after sleep after hawking (Q, 30C, 200C).

Poor appetite, easy satiety (Q, 30C Decreased appetite with increased thirst for warm water (30C, 200C). Nausea wit constant inclination to vomit (Q, 30C), wit salty salivation (30C), worse after breakfas evening, and sitting erect (Q, 30C).’ He doesn’t feel like eating anything’ (Q). Empty eructation with yawning and tiredness (Q). Feels as if he will get rid of the discomfort he vomits (Q). Heaviness and fullness c stomach, shifting pain in stomach, worse evening, loss of sleep, better sitting erect (Q 200C). Empty all gone feeling in stomach better after eating (Q, 30C, 200C).

Heaviness and fullness in abdomen (( 30C, 200C), worse after loss of sleep (Q, 30(200 C), early morning (Q, 200C), bett sitting erect (Q, 200C). Flatulence both upwards and downwards during night (Q Fullness in abdomen is not relieved after passing flatus (200C). Pain abdomen, comes suddenly and goes suddenly, better by pressure (200C). Bubbling sensation in right hypochondria, worse evening (Q). Flatulence (:) Abdominal colic (:) Irritable bowel syndrome (:).

Constant urging for stool, unfinished sensation after passage of stools (Q, 30C 200C). Hard stool with difficulty in passing (Q, 30C, 200C). Burning in anus during at after stool (Q, 30C, 200C), better washit with cold water (Q). Constipation with hard large and black stool (Q, 30C, 200C Haemorrhoids protruding, bleeding with burning after passage of stool (Q,30C, 200C). Burning in anus, worse after stool, after passing flatus (30C). Loud flatus (30C). Soft stool with constant urging (Q). Hard stool alternate with soft stool (200C). Diarrhoea (:) Dysentery (:) Tenesmus (:) Haemorrhoids (:) Irritable bowel syndrome (:)

Scantly flow of urine (Q, 30C), with fullness of stomach and abdomen (Q). Decreased frequency of micturition (Q, 30C). Urine yellow, scanty, worse loss of sleep (30C). Polyuria (:) Diuretic (:) Frequent micturition (:) Strangury (:) Urinary infections(: Urethral discharges (:)

Increased sexual desire (Q). Intense erection after midnight, wakes up from sleep, disturbed sleep afterwards (Q). Diminished sexual desire, decreased frequency of masturbation, no inclination to do so in persons who are regularly masturbating (Q).Bruised pain in the right testicle, worse evening, motion (Q). Scrotal itching, increased perspiration of the part, exfoliation of the skin. Intense burning, soreness and excoriation, worse washing with cold water, perspiration, night, slightest touch (30C, 200C). Aphrodisiac (J Promotes sexual vigour and sexual factor (J Sexual weakness (J Spermatorrhoea (J Gonorrhoea

Menses either at regular time (Q) or early (Q, 30C). Flow is dark and scanty (Q, 30C). Backache during scanty menses (Q, 30C). Dysmenorrhoea, pain extends to back with sensation of fullness in lower abdomen (Q), Leucorrhoea (:) Uterine disorders (:) Strengthens the uterine muscles during pregnancy (given after 5th month) (:) Helps child birth and easy labour (:) Reduces the tiredness and insomnia during pregnancy (:)Prevents cramps during pregnancy (:) Gonorrhoea (:)

Dry cough (Q,30C, 200C), with scanty expectoration (30C, 200C), with hoarseness of voice (200 C), worse night, lying down (Q,30C, 200C), inspiration (30C, 200C), evening (30C), Ii a.m. to 1 p.m. (30C), better warm drinks (200C). Expectoration thick, tough, white and salty (30C, 200C). Difficult audible breathing, rattling in chest, worse morning, talking, better rest (Q). Stitching pain in chest, right lower 4th 5th and 6th intercostal region, as if pain comes from inside out, worse inspiration, exertion, motion, better rest, by supporting the chest with hands (Q, 30C). Shifting pain in chest, worse evening (30C). Feeling of something behind the sternum, as if mucus collected in the middle of the chest (200C). Soreness of the lower part of the sternum (200C).Pulmonary tuberculosis with general debility and emaciation (:) Chest pain (:)

Left-sided lancinating chest pain, comes suddenly and persists for a while, debilitating pain, worse motion (200C). Useful in heart diseases (:).

Aching pain in the back, middle of spine, lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae are very sensitive, worse stooping, better: sitting erect, straightening the back in sitting posture (Q). Increased perspiration around the neck (Q). Pain in the lumbar region, worse morning, motion, better after 10 o’clock (30C). Pain in coccyx with weakness and feverishness of the whole body,worse motion, better pressure, lying on back (30C). Rheumatism (:)

Pain and stiffness of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left hand (Q). Twitching of deltoid muscle, left side (Q). Itching eruption over left elbow, posterior aspect, worse morning (Q). Numbness of the arms with sensation of pins and needles, worse fanning, cold, morning after waking, better walking (30C). Tibial pain, worse motion, better rest (30C). Itching of right elbow, anterior aspect of cubital fossa, red eruption with increased perspiration surrounding it (30C). Bone pains, worse night, morning, better warm application (200C). Heaviness of lower-limbs after waking (200C). Cracks over the tip of big toe and second toe, more on left side, painful, better washing with cold water, dry peeling cracks around the cracks (200C). Dryness of folds of thighs, ulceration, burning and peeling of dust like particle while scratching, worse night, washing (30C). Rheumatism (:) Osteoarthritis (:) Neurological disorders like hemiplegia, facial paralysis, and sciatica (:) Emaciation (:) Debility (:)

Disturbed sleep, unrefreshed after waking (Q, 30C, 200C). Wakes one hour before the usual time, can’t get sleep after that (30C). Constantly awaking from sleep (Q, 30C). Sleeplessness due to crowding of thoughts (Q). Sleepiness and tired feeling (200C). Restlessness in bed, ‘ he cant get comfort in any position in bed’ (30C), with sensation as if he is perspiring (30C). Dreams of daily business (Q, 30C), of lightning, persons around him getting hurt by lightning (Q), of elephant coming to murder him (30C).Dreams of rose coloured snake, “he is in a crowd and snake came out of a hole and he jumped to avoid the snake from biting him” (30C), of impending disease (30C). Feeling of stuffiness of nose in the dream (30C). Insomnia during pregnancy (:)

Fever with intense thirst, body pain and chillness, prefers covering during chilliness (200C). Febrifuge (:) Fever accompanied by shivering (:)

Red itching eruption especially over elbow joint and dorsum of foot (Q, 30C, 200C), increased perspiration around the area (30C), exfoliation of skin around the eruption (200C), thin, watery, sticky discharge after scratching, worse night, better morning (Q, 30C, 200C) . Itching of scrotum and between scrotum and thighs, with exfoliation of skin, worse night, washing, perspiration, scratching (Q, 30C, 200C). Generalized itching without eruption, especially over trunk, chest, back, arms and face (30C). Antidote to snake and scorpion venom (:) Tumours (:) Boils (:) Swellings (:) Warts (:) Wound healing (:) Burning sensation (:) Elephantiasis (:)

After mental exertion, evening, morning after waking, night in bed, lying down, loss of sleep, cold washing, motion, exposure to cold, inspiration.
From pressure, sitting erect, rest, after sleep, after food.

Dr. Jithesh .T.K – the author after getting their basic graduation in Homoeopathy, completed the Post Graduation in Homoeopathic Materia medica from Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Kozhikode. The proving, which was part of their PG curriculum was also conducted there: Dr. Jithesh also presented a paper ‘Homoeopathy for the control of Vaccinosis’ along with his wife Dr.. Shirin Balan in the 13 Kerala Science Congress. 29-31, January 2001, Kila, Thrissur.

Dr T K  Jithesh. BHMS,MD (Hom)
Medical Officer, Dept. of Ayush , Govt. of Delhi
Email :


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